American History / Comparing And Contrasting The Careers, Views And
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Autor: anton 11 December 2010
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Comparing and Contrasting the Careers, Views and
Accomplishments of William Jennings Bryan and Woodrow Wilson
Two very influential men, Thomas Woodrow Wilson, born 1856, and William Jennings Bryan, born 1860 came onto the scene at one of the most critical points in American history. Thomas Woodrow Wilson was what you would call a late bloomer, yet in his later years that late â€œbloomâ€ turned out to be a remarkable blossom. In other words, the impact he had on human society was colossal. William Jennings Bryan was a brilliant orator. His amazing speeches won him widespread recognition. While these two men worked along side each other in the realm of politics, sometimes in harmony and sometimes not, their lives would forever transform America.
Woodrow Wilson began his career as a professor, loving to read and write about the workings of the government. His contributions to this field included helping women into the field of academia that would eventually lead to the modern skilled and working woman and also writing several highly regarded books in the subjects of history and government. As a liberal reformer in education, he figured one way to further improve American government was to start where it all began, â€œmodernizing and purifying the American academyâ€ (Johnson, p. 629). Wilson soon became the governor of New Jersey, and what the City bosses thought would be a little puppet in their hands, actually became their â€œabsolute master, displaying in the process a skill at intrigue, maneuver, and elevated skullduggeryâ€¦â€ (Johnson, p. 633). The prestige that he gained from bringing this honest administration in the corrupt state made him the top-runner for the presidential nomination in 1912.
William Jennings Bryan, after graduating as the valedictorian and class orator from Illinois College, moved to Nebraska and became the first Democratic congressman in Nebraskaâ€™s twenty years of statehood. After these two terms in Congress, Bryan became editor of the Omaha World-Herald and traveled the Chautauqua lecture circuit promoting populist ideas. In 1896, he gave a brilliant speech on behalf of the â€˜free silverâ€™ men at the National Convention in Chicago. â€œHe championed the idea that the dollar should be backed by more plentiful silver rather than gold, as was the present U. S. policyâ€¦ Tumultuous applause erupted on the convention floor and continued for thirty minutesâ€! (Linder). This astounding speech won him the democratic nomination, the first of three failed attempts. The second and third tries were spent at campaigning progressive issues such as anti-imperialism, consumer protection, regulation of trusts, and finance reform. â€œAlthough his dream of the presidency was never realized, Bryan succeeded in transforming the Democratic Party from a conservative party of Civil War losers to a coalition more focused on the interests of blue-collar workers, farmers, and religious and ethnic minoritiesâ€ (Linder).
When Wilson ran for president in 1912, Bryan â€œpreformed his last great service to the Democratic Party by helping secure Wilsonâ€™s nominationâ€ (Johnson, p. 635. Even though Wilson had been in politics only three years, and had never sat in Congress, his â€œlecture room skills served him well for platform oratoryâ€¦his fine voice and admirable, often spontaneous, choice of words could hold audiences of up to 35,000 spellboundâ€ (Johnson, p.634), something he and Bryan held very much in common. Wilson won the presidency, made Bryan his Secretary of State, and formed a great strong administration. He was on a mission to revolutionize the way of thinking for a strong federal government â€œwith wide powers of intervention, as the defender of the ordinary man and woman against the excesses of corporate powerâ€ (Johnson, p. 636). Instead of limiting the government and state rights, as in what Jefferson and Jackson stood for, Wilson was the one to introduce America to big, benevolent government. Under Wilson, a personal income tax was implemented. Also, the Federal Reserve System was created as well as the Underwood Tariff Act. The Federal Trade Commission and the Clayton Antitrust Act were created to protect against cornering, monopolies, and oligopolies and the Federal Farm Loan Act and Adamson Act were created to protect the farmers and industrial workers. Bryan supported all these reforms as well as womenâ€™s suffrage. By virtue of this legislation, Wilson was reelected as president for a second term under the slogan â€œhe kept us out of war.â€
This slogan, however, was not going to hold its promise forever. In May of 1915, despite Wilsonâ€™s pacifism and claims of neutrality, the sinking of the Lusitania by a German U-boat confirmed that the U.S would indeed enter the war; it was only a matter of time. When U-boats kept sinking many of American ships and, to beat it all, tried to convince Minister Arthur Zimmerman of the Mexican government that Texas should be handed back to Mexico, Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war on April 2nd.
At this point, Wilson and Bryan came to a disagreement. Bryan, an extreme pacifist, completely disagreed with Wilsonâ€™s decision to go to war. â€œWhile generally supported Wilson's decision to intervene in Mexico in 1914, he nevertheless argued for peaceful diplomacy, and to that end managed to persuade some 30 nations to sign treaties committing each to arbitration of international disputesâ€ (Who's Who: William Jennings Bryan). Although Wilson tried his best to stay out of war, the situation could no longer be ignored. With the support of Congress, war was declared, and Bryan resigned from his position of Secretary of State with strong beliefs otherwise. Once the tiresome war was over, Wilson introduced his Fourteen Points at the Paris Peace conference as the basis for the peace treaty. It introduced â€œthe idea of a League of Nations, an organization that would strive to help preserve territorial integrity and political independence among large and small nations alikeâ€ (USA-presidents). Even though the Fourteen Points was intended to put an end to the war and assure peace to all nations, and most of the ideas from the League of Nations were incorporated into the Versailles Treaty, the Fourteen Points pretty much fell by the wayside. â€œUnfortunately, the Treaty did not get support from the U.S Congress. Consequently, the United States never joined the League of Nationsâ€ (Woodrow Wilson Presidential Library). The League of Nations was also ambiguous. â€œWilson compounded the ambiguity by insisting that the covenant was not a legal document but a moral one- and therefore all the more binding on its signatoriesâ€ (Johnson, p. 653).
Even though Bryan resigned from office in protest of the war, he still remained active in politics. He went on to make history in the famous Scopes Trial (Monkey Trial) where he opposed the issue of the teaching of the Darwinist evolutionary theory, and in 1924 drafted legislation to prevent its teaching in Florida schools as well as in other states. His legendary battle against Clarence Darrow is what is considered one the greatest courtroom examinations ever. A week later, after the trial ended, Bryan died in his sleep.
Wilson went on to tour the country to help build public support for the League of Nations, against doctorsâ€™ orders. He fell from utter exhaustion and suffered a stroke. He became increasingly invalid during the last years of his life, but tended to by his wife, he survived until 1924.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson and William Jennings Bryan forever transformed America with their views on progressive reforms. Both brilliant orators and held in harmony by similar views for a time, they were able to make drastic changes in the worldâ€™s favor. As disagreements were bound to arise and their harmony shattered in the midst of war, America still came out a better country, learned and experienced with help from these two menâ€™s relentless determination and use of extraordinary talents.
FirstWorldWar.com. Whoâ€™s Who: William Jennings Bryan. Retrieved on 22 March 2006 from http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/bryan.htm.
Johnson, Paul. A History of the American People. HarperPerennial: New York, NY 1997.
Linder, Doug. 2004. William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925). Retrieved on 23 March 2006 from http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/scopes/bryanw.htm.
The Woodrow Wilson Presidential Library. Woodrow Wilson Biography .Retrieved on 22 March 2006 from http://www.woodrowwilson.org.
Woodrow Wilson. Retrieved on 23 March 2006 from http://www.usa-presidents.info/wilson.htm.
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