American History / Jackie Robinson &Amp; The Fall Of Bronzeville
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Autor: anton 03 April 2011
Words: 1400 | Pages: 6
Jackie RobinsonÐ²Ð‚â„¢s integration into baseball caused an economic vacuum that the African-American community is still trying to recover from. The case is so wide ranging one only need to look at one neighborhood to see all of the effects, the Bronzeville neighborhood on ChicagoÐ²Ð‚â„¢s south side.
Between 1910 and 1930 the black populations in the north rose about 20% on average. This was called Ð²Ð‚Ñšthe great migrationÐ²Ð‚Ñœ in which African Americans ventured north to find work. Work in the south was in short supply because of a boll weevil infestation in the cotton crops. Jobs were to be had in the factories and steel mills of the north because a need of supplies for the mounting World War I. Railroad companies were so desperate for help that they paid African Americans' travel expenses to the North. After the war began the migration slowed because of men joining the armed forces but it would pick back up after the War. The Chicago Defender, an African American newspaper, was a remarkably successful in encouraging blacks to migrate from the South to Chicago, often listing names of churches and other organizations to whom they could write for help. During the early 1900Ð²Ð‚â„¢s Bronzeville was home to a number of black newspapers and 731 different business establishments, by 1917 there was 61 different lines of work available. By 1929 Bronzeville Americans had amassed $100 million in real-estate holdings alone.
The first thing that has to be understood is that segregation is not a totally bad thing. It taught the African American community to provide services for itself in all areas of living. These services catered to the African American community almost exclusively. From hotels to bakeries, taverns and restaurants, grocery stores, to funeral homes. The funeral home in the African American community was always a good career choice, one could become fiscally well off or as well of as an African American could get. The morticians were the primary financial boosters of many a new Negro league baseball club. The other influx of capital into baseball clubs was from racketeers who saw an opportunity to clean up their money. The Ð²Ð‚ÑšNegro LeagueÐ²Ð‚Ñœ was created in 1920 in Chicago by Rube Foster. He wasnÐ²Ð‚â„¢t a mortician or a numbers man but an ex-player who organized the independent teams into a league in the larger cities, primarily in the north. Cities such as Pittsburgh, Detroit, New York, Philadelphia, Newark, and Chicago became hubs for the industrious men and women who ran and played for these teams. Every team had to travel and with competition high for the best players the owners spared no expense in pampering their stars. Only the best accommodations were in order for the Satchel PaigeÐ²Ð‚â„¢s, Josh GibsonÐ²Ð‚â„¢s, and Judy JohnsonÐ²Ð‚â„¢s. This meant that high priced African American hotels were at a premium because they wanted to be the official hotel of the Ð²Ð‚ÑšHomestead GraysÐ²Ð‚Ñœ or Ð²Ð‚ÑšPittsburgh CrawfordsÐ²Ð‚Ñœ. The hotels would sign the best lounge acts they could find such as Louie Armstrong or Billie Holliday. This kept the hotels and taverns of the area buzzing with excitement all the time. Now most of these players were from down south so they would also want a bit of home cooking, this put the resturaunts into competition. The larger cities with the best hotels, restaurants, and facilities always held the all-star game. The game was always held in Chicago except for the 1946 game (Griffith Stadium, Washington D.C.). The Players themselves were the highest paid, most well recognized people in the community. Their fame brought people to the neighborhoods in which they lived. Players like everyone else in society will try to live near their job. In Chicago, the closest black community near the park they played in (Comiskey Park) was Bronzeville. It was not only home to ballplayers but to other influential members of the African American community such as, author Richard Wright, musician Louie Armstrong, and poet Gwendolyn Brooks. The league was flourishing as much as its supportive community, until an ex all-American fullback from UCLA decided to give baseball a try after a stint in the military.
Jackie Robinson was born in Cairo, Georgia on January 31, 1919 to a family of sharecroppers. As a youngster his mother, Mallie, would move him and his four brothers and sisters to Los Angeles. Jackie was a star athlete excelling in football and track, eventually earning all-American honors at UCLA. As most men his age he joined the army in 1941 and served two years and earning the rank of second lieutenant. He was originally dishonorable discharged over Jim Crow rules on an army bus. In 1945 he signed with the Kansas City Monarchs because their in field was left depleted by World War II. The star attraction on the team was the best player in the league and arguably the best pitcher ever in the Negro leagues Satchel Paige. In 1942 Paige made $37,000 or more than four times the major league average. By then major league baseball was looking for the right man to integrate their league. Paige was automatically disqualified for a number of reasons. He was his own boss who barnstormed in the off season with Ð²Ð‚ÑšhisÐ²Ð‚Ñœ team of all-stars, even once missing part of a season after selling him and his team to Dominican Dictator Raphael Trujillo for the Caribbean World Series. In Their view he would be uncontrollable. But a former military man with little baseball background was worth a shot. If he failed they can always say that they tried. In 1945 Jackie Robinson signed with the Brooklyn Dodgers; by 1947 he was with the major league team.
With Robinson in the major leagues the people in the communities had no need to go see the Negro league teams. The community was pulling for one man in the Ð²Ð‚ÑšrealÐ²Ð‚Ñœ major leagues. Other teams followed suit signing the young stars of the Negro league, Roy Campanella, Larry Doby, and Don Newcomb. With attendance and off the field support shrinking the teams began to fold. As the teams began to fold so did the revenues of the hotels and restaurants in the community. It had support from within the community but not enough from the tourists and extra people that came with the attraction of baseball. By the mid fifties the US was in an economic boom but in the African American communities it was a mere thud. Now the very thing that made the community prosper was now holding it back. Without the influx of outside dollars that the Negro leagues brought these establishments, hotels, restaurants, laundry mats, and taverns, began to fade. But the blame for this trend could lay with the attitude in the rest of the city. The police didnÐ²Ð‚â„¢t treat crime as a priority in the African American community. The middle class blacks had to move out to help alleviate the conditions. The federal housing act of 1949 provided funds for the overcrowded area but instead of building the homes elsewhere housing projects were constructed in the same neighborhood. All this in spite of a Supreme Court ruling in 1948 that states Ð²Ð‚Ñšracial restrictive covenantsÐ²Ð‚Ñœ were unenforceable, continuation, and the furthering of social segregation was now the official response to the Ð²Ð‚Ñšblack slum problem.Ð²Ð‚Ñœ
Jackie Robinson wasnÐ²Ð‚â„¢t the only cause for the black communities around the country to face hardship; he was just the main catalyst. Looking back on it now it seems to have been a situation where one needs to take a step backwards to get a better look at where they are headed. Equality is the foundation this country is based on, it just seems that it takes some of longer to get there. In order for the African American to get where it is today We had to take a big step back.
Donn Rogosin Invisible Men. Kodansha America Inc., 1995.
James A. Riley The Biographical Encyclopedia of the Negro Baseball Leagues. Carroll & Graf Publishers, Inc. 1994
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