American History / The Molding Of American Culture: Cocaine 1860-1914
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Autor: anton 30 March 2011
Words: 1880 | Pages: 8
Cocaine: The Molding of American Culture, 1860- 1914
Cocaine had slowly risen into American Popular Culture, starting with an appeal to the elite class and ending with the Harrison Act of 1914. Employers encouraged the use of the coca leaf among their workers to increase productivity and decrease fatigue. Early physicians would prescribe cocaine to treat everything from morphine addiction to the common cold. Cocaine became a common ingredient in consumer goods. Marketers raved about the amazing effects of cocaine in their advertisements. Early historical figures, including Thomas Edison and Pope Leo XIII, endorsed French coca wine. It was difficult to escape the grasp of cocaineÐ²Ð‚â„¢s spreading popularity.
The plant from which cocaine is extracted has been cultivated in South America for thousands of years, and a large part of the population of Bolivia and Peru, smaller numbers in Colombia, and a few people in Argentina and Brazil now chew its leaf every day (Grinspoon and Bakalar 9). One student of the coca leaf has gone so far as to write of the Peruvian Indians, Ð²Ð‚ÑšNever in the life of a people has a drug had such importance.Ð²Ð‚Ñœ (Grinspoon and Bakalar 9). Many have noted if it wasnÐ²Ð‚â„¢t for the coca leaf, Peru would cease to exist.
It is difficult to pinpoint exactly where coca first grew wild or was used as a drug. Documented early use has sprung up among various regions and many civilizations at different times. It has been suggested that the chewing of coca originated in central Amazon or with the Aymara Indians of Bolivia. The word coca is believed to be of Aymara origin and it simply means plant or tree (Grinspoon and Bakalar 9-10). There is also some research that may suggest coca use originated in Northeast Africa. In 1992, a forensic study of a 3,000 years old high priestess mummy found evidence of coca use (Arts and Entertainment Network). Given the relevant context, it is assumed that coca was of great importance and ranked high among value to these cultures.
The coca leaf does not yield the potency to deliver any type of overwhelming effect. The coca leaf in natural form gives the similar effect that a well caffeinated cup of coffee would (Arts and Entertainment Network). It wasnÐ²Ð‚â„¢t until Albert Niemann, a German scientist, extracted and processed the coca leaf ingredients, would it become a potent drug. In 1860, Niemann would rename the results of his extraction, cocaine (Arts and Entertainment Network).
In 1863, coca arrives on United StatesÐ²Ð‚â„¢ shores as an ingredient in a French wine, Vin Mariani. The wine was very successful with consumers. Popular figures, Thomas Edison, and Pope Leo XIII, endorsed Vin Mariani (Spillane 2). President Ulysses Grant would habitually drink the coca wine, to ease the pain of throat cancer, while writing his memoirs (Arts and Entertainment Network). Mark Twain often delivered the cocaine wine to President Grant and indulged alongside him (Arts and Entertainment Network).
American physicians begin to use cocaine in medical practices. Cocaine was identified as a drug that depresses the central nervous system; however it had the exact opposite affect. The only general anesthetics available to physicians were chloroform and ether. These anesthetics would induce retching or vomit and did little for pain. Operations that required precision and detail were nearly impossible. Cocaine had delivered none of these negative effects and numbed the pain of the patient (Spillane 14). For the time being, cocaine was revered as a Ð²Ð‚Ñšwonder drugÐ²Ð‚Ñœ to the medical community.
Sigmund Freud, perhaps the most famous psychiatrist in history, and a cocaine enthusiast, felt that psychiatrists had many drugs that sedate patients, but very little that stimulated. However, no drugs were available that could increase the functioning of nerve centers. Cocaine was the answer to his problem. Freud believed with the right implication, cocaine could treat nervous disease. Freud also urged its adoption in the treatment of hysteria, hypochondria, and melancholy (Spillane 18). The Philadelphia Medical Times reported that coca was an effective Ð²Ð‚Ñšstimulant, tonic, and restorative to the system in the treatment of various diseases by debility and exhaustion.Ð²Ð‚Ñœ (Spillane 18). Sigmund Freud would become a cocaine addict, however he would eventually recover from his affliction (Arts and Entertainment Network).
FreudÐ²Ð‚â„¢s testimonies were to play a significant role in the development of the North American cocaine industry. Ð²Ð‚ÑšI take very small doses of it regularly and against depression and against indigestion, and with the most brilliant successÐ²Ð‚Ñœ, he observed. Industrial drug giants Merck and Parke Davies both paid Freud to endorse their rival brands. He wrote several enthusiastic papers on cocaine, notably Uber Coca in 1884. A passage from his written work, On Cocaine: Ð²Ð‚ÑšA few minutes after taking cocaine, one experiences a certain exhilaration and feeling of lightness. One feels certain furriness on the lips and palate, followed by a feeling of warmth in the same areas; if one now drinks cold water, it feels warm on the lips and cold in the throat. One other occasion the predominant feeling is a rather pleasant coolness in the mouth and throat.Ð²Ð‚Ñœ (Arts and Entertainment Network).
During the 1890s, cocaine had reached new heights of popularity. North AmericaÐ²Ð‚â„¢s idolized baseball players partook in cocaine use, while playing professional games, much like chewing tobacco is used today. Many works of literature were written that popularized cocaine, such as 7% Solution and DoyleÐ²Ð‚â„¢s fictional stories of Detective Sherlock Holmes whom injects cocaine everyday (Arts and Entertainment Network).
Entrepreneurs started adding cocaine to any product they could. Common cold medicines, Ð²Ð‚ÑšpepÐ²Ð‚Ñœ pills, hygiene products, wine, and tonics were among the cocaine riddled products introduced to stores (Arts and Entertainment Network). These were all marketed to The United StatesÐ²Ð‚â„¢ consumers.
Coca-Cola is probably the most well known cocaine containing product of the 1880s. Originally called PembertonÐ²Ð‚â„¢s Tonics, used to treat morphine addiction. Asa Candler bought PembertonÐ²Ð‚â„¢s formula and added various flavorings. Candler renamed this tonic Coca-Cola. Coca-Cola was advertised to create energy and deplete headaches (Arts and Entertainment Network). Coca-Cola has since become a national icon and an established international corporate empire.
Cocaine use to increase workplace productivity was first documented around 1890, among the African American male working class. The roustabouts or dock workers of the Mississippi River took place among the bottom of waterfront occupation hierarchy. They were given a reputation for the extremely physical labor they endured and their choice of unsavory lifestyles (Spillane 91). The roustabouts adopted cocaine to help cope with the enduring hardships of fast living and physical endeavor.
Employers during this time believed that African Americans could naturally endure physical labor and environmental extremities better then Caucasians (Spillane 91). Cocaine supposedly increased these advantages of strength and endurance. Many times employers would replace the whiskey rations with cocaine rations. The Medical News reported that Ð²Ð‚Ñšone big planter is reported to keep the drug in stock among the plantation supplies and to issue regular rations of cocaine just as he was accustomed in the past to issue rations of whiskey.Ð²Ð‚Ñœ (Spillane 92).
Cocaine had evolved into a manipulating power used by employers. A radical labor organizer Ð²Ð‚ÑšBig BillÐ²Ð‚Ñœ Haywood concluded that Ð²Ð‚Ñšat every company store, cocaine, morphine, and heroin are sold. The workers, once addicted, cannot think of going away from their source of supply.Ð²Ð‚Ñœ (Spillane 93). The employersÐ²Ð‚â„¢ promise of cocaine rations would increase the turnout of people seeking employment. Cocaine powder was compact, transported easily, and convenient for any workplace setting.
Waterfront employment most often was only seasonal. The roustabouts would search for employment after the season had ended. This spread the popularity of cocaine to other southern workplaces. Harrison Dickson, a lawyer living in Vicksburg, Mississippi, wrote Ð²Ð‚ÑšIt is common knowledgeÐ²Ð‚Â¦throughout the country that on many public works, levee construction, railroad work and places of that sort where negroes congregate, that cocaine is handled by some method or other.Ð²Ð‚Ñœ (Spillane 92). Cocaine directly contributed to the construction of North AmericaÐ²Ð‚â„¢s early structures.
The idea of a drug that increased productivity quickly traveled to other parts of The United States. Employers were quick to exploit the benefits of cocaine on their workers. As early as August 1894, cocaine had appeared in the western states, especially among mining regions. Soon cocaine appeared in the industrial Northeast. Textile mills in Connecticut and Maine would commonly supply employees with cocaine. Engineers would also use cocaine, to stay awake, during hours of overtime work (Spillane 92-93).
Cocaine sniffing soon went from the work camps, factories, and store shelves to the urban vice district, where the drug begun to assume a more Ð²Ð‚ÑšdeviantÐ²Ð‚Ñœ identity. New OrleansÐ²Ð‚â„¢s newspapers began to link African American frequented saloons and the cityÐ²Ð‚â„¢s infamous red-light district with cocaine subculture. The supercharged racial philosophy of 1890s whites sparked a cry for the state to regulate the sell of cocaine. Whites perceived cocaine taking as the manifestation of a newer, bolder attitude on the part of a Ð²Ð‚Ñšnew generationÐ²Ð‚Ñœ of young, urban blacks (Spillane 94-95). It became common popular belief during this era that cocaine influenced blacks to commit acts of violence, especially towards whites. The city passed an ordinance against the selling of this drug. Soon after, almost all other states would institute some type of law or regulation.
The Harrison Act of 1914 would make cocaine illegal, stripping all products of the ingredient. Section Eight of the Harrison Act explains Ð²Ð‚ÑšThat it shall be unlawful for any person not registered under the provisions of this Act, and who has not paid the special tax provided for by this Act, to have in his possession or under his control any of the aforesaid drugs; and such possessions or such control shall be presumptive evidence of a violation of this section (Belenko 53).Ð²Ð‚Ñœ Section Nine of the Harrison Act cites Ð²Ð‚ÑšThat any person who violates or fails to comply with any of the requirements of this Act shall, on conviction, be fined not more than $2,000 or be imprisoned not more than five years, or both, in the discretion of the court (Belenko 53).Ð²Ð‚Ñœ It seemed as if cocaine had disappeared as fast as it had flourished.
There is very little evidence to prove that cocaine use was more frequent with African Americans then Caucasian Americans. The laws set forth were due to the overgrowing popularity of cocaine with blacks. Radical racial ideals deemed most things associated with the likeness of the African American to be immoral and unsavory, thus thrusting cocaineÐ²Ð‚â„¢s status from Ð²Ð‚Ñšwonder drugÐ²Ð‚Ñœ to urban menace.
Cocaine had fallen dormant from the sight of popular culture. It would be many decades, before cocaine would reach a national status and public awareness, as it did during this time. Cocaine had a tremendous role in the foundation of America and the culture of this era.
Edited by Steven R. Belenko. Drugs and Drug Policy in America. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 2000.
Grinspoon, Lester and James B. Bakalar. Cocaine: A Drug and its Social Evolution. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1976.
Hooked: Illegal Drugs and How They Got That Way. Arts and Entertainment Network. 200 min. New York, New York. A&E: History Channel, 2000.
Spillane, Joseph F. Cocaine: From Medical Marvel to Modern Menace in the United States, 1884-1920. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.
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