Business / Global Marketing Management
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Autor: anton 09 December 2010
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Global marketing management first involves the same elements as any type of marketing management and then must take into account the different requirements of the global marketplace, the different opportunities, and the pitfalls that must be avoided in this developing arena. Deciding what works and what does not and seeing to it that the company follows what works is the job of the marketing manager. While the purpose of marketing is the same in the global marketplace as in the domestic market, namely to decide what the customer wants and then to provide it, the task can be more complicated in the global market because the manager will not be as familiar with that market, because that market is not one market at all but many markets in many different countries and parts of the world, and even different markets within the same country or region. The process of marketing therefore now involves finding the right message for many different places and taking care not to try to tell a product with the wrong message in a part of the world where that might be offensive.
Marketers have to consider the core values of the consumer, and in America, these values are ascertained by various means by marketers. American marketers tend to have a good idea of the values held by American consumers, but when thinking globally, they have to account for different values in other parts of the world. What sells well in America may not sell well in Europe and may have even less traction in the Middle East or Africa. The mass-market strategies used in the past in the U.S. are now considered crude and overly general, and they may also not be applicable in some places. Some core values seem always to have an effect in the U.S., however, among them a sense of personal freedom, quality, value for money spent, individualism, originality, and personal success. Individuality is not a core value at all in many parts of the world, and personal success also may not be given as high a consideration.
These values are often expressed in the marketing strategies undertaken to reach the consumer and sell products and services, though often the values are implied rather than overtly stated. For instance, the marketer entering the American market with a clothing line will associate the clothing with images reflecting these values--people who are expressing themselves, doing so freely, and achieving much while wearing this clothing. Commercials would show young people working and playing in these clothes, implying that anyone wearing the same clothes would thus be successful and free as well. Selling the clothing line in other parts of the world might emphasize fitting into the social scene more than standing out.
Marketing developed from an early focus on the product to a new focus on the customer, and this was addressed by the idea of the marketing mix, or the four Ps of marketing, namely product, place, price and promotion. Market segmentation was next introduced, followed by many other approaches: â€œMarketing discipline therefore, is heavily influenced by economics, psychology, philosophy, management and other social sciencesâ€ (Kermally 13).
The science of marketing has replaced the more intuitive approach of the past, placing more emphasis on research and on the psychology. This is indicated by C.P. Rao, who writes.
More and more of the worldâ€™s people, from the richest to the poorest, are now participating in the worldâ€™s wealth through global trade. Bonded together by satellite communications and global companies, consumers in every corner of the world are demanding an ever-expanding variety of goods. (Rao 29)
Living standards have been rising for some time around the world, and this has led to an increasingly competitive marketplace:
This heightened competition has forced companies from all over the world to find new ways to build and maintain their competitive strength. As a result, the level and intensity of competition has changed. (Rao 29)
Global marketing management has a particular meaning and a particular role in marketing on the Internet. Such marketing is necessarily global as well, for the Internet crosses borders quite freely, except in those countries able to impose limitations, such as China has been doing. Geraldine T. Cohen notes,
The nationally based business will start with cautious testing of new markets, often selected with a similar culture, having a focus that is culturally and managerially â€˜ethnocentricâ€™ or centered around the home market. A multinational business will have a â€˜polycentricâ€™ orientation, i.e. a focus based on the understanding and appreciation of different operating contexts. (Cohen 195)
Global marketing has to begin with a decision about how broad a market is to be served, and the choice of media may determine this question to a great extent. This is why an e-company by its very nature has to have a global perspective to be successful.
Many marketing experts would agree with John Quelch and Edward Hoff when they write, â€œThe big issue today is not whether to go global but how to tailor the global marketing concept to fit each business and how to make it workâ€ (Quelch and Hoff 60). That was in the 1980s, and the demand is even greater today as companies seek to compete in the global arena on the Internet and in more traditional venues at the same time. Global trade shapes the way companies operate, the goods they produce, the alliances they make, and certainly the messages they use to sell their products. In the past, a product might be sold one way in one part of the world and very differently in another, while the globalization of trade today undercuts such an approach in many cases by making more people around the world aware of the messages sent in other markets. Companies have always wanted to create a brand name that would translate well into other markets, of course, and many American products have been able to achieve this. Coca-Cola, for instance an icon of the American economy around the world and conveyed a certain image by its very name. The product might be sold in somewhat different ways in different countries, but the name itself stood as the primary global marketing strategy. Creating such a universal brand is difficult, but it is more and more the goal for companies. Japanese electronics products and Japanese automobiles followed the same global strategy beginning in the 1970s and often dominate the market globally as a result. Global marketing management is a process intended to create this sort of image for a company and to make that image effective in markets around the world.
Cohen, Geraldine T. â€œe-Commerce: A Global Overview.â€ In E-Business Fundamentals: Managing Organisations in the Electronic Age, Peter M. Eckersley, Lisa Harris, and Paul Jackson, 191-224. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Kermally, Sultan. Gurus on Marketing. London: Thorogood, 2003.
Quelch, John A. and Edward J. Hoff. â€œCustomizing Global Marketing.â€ Harvard Business Review 64 (May-June 1986), 59-68.
Rao, C.P. Globalization and Its Managerial Implications. Westport, Connecticut: Quorum Books, 2001.
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