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Autor: anton 08 June 2011
Words: 1250 | Pages: 5
Public Relations: Organizational and Societal Functions Reviewed
The pituitary gland is a human body part that is no larger than a pea and is located in the base of the brain where the three lobes meet. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center (2007), this master gland of the endocrine system performs a number of functions from controlling skin pigmentation, an external activity, to the internal action of increasing hormones found in the advent of puberty. In short, this gland performs both internal and external functions. The organizational and societal functions of public relations are similar to the internal and external functions of the pituitary gland. To understand these communication functions, one must denote the meaning of each while categorizing particular genres based on understandings thereof.
Definition of Organizational and Societal Relations
Organizational functions of public relations (PR) typically target internal publics, such as workers, management, the board of directors and investors. The purpose of the role is the attempt to offer information which will center the power of workers, management and financiers towards the organizational goals. As a difference, societal functions of PR target external publics, for example, government agencies, media, consumers, and specialty groups. The meaning of this function lies with a message that promotes and vends the organization as a whole, appealing to opinion and cultivating a relationship of reciprocal honesty and trust. From this point, the following list of actions can be categorized as organizational, societal or both in practice.
The list includes: public affairs and risk management, consumer relations, governmental affairs, social responsibility, community relations, investor relations, marketing communications, employee relations, media relations, relationship management, publicity and communications management. For the purpose of this discussion, a maximum of four have been chosen: employee relations, community relations, social responsibility and communications management.
In whole, employee relations holds internal functions. This has become an increasing role in the synergy of public relations and the human resources fields with a stress on honesty, professionalism, and responsibility. Organizations can no longer proceed blindly to employee interests and must build morale with an ongoing rapport among workers of all levels through various internal activities such as annual employee surveys, intranet communiquÐ¹s, organizational progress reports, face-to-face communications and other similar tools. As a model, NASAâ€™s Office of Human Management offers a translation and protocol for the discussed activities. The explanation reads:
â€œEmployee Relations involves the body of work concerned with maintaining employer-employee relationships that contribute to satisfactory productivity, motivation, and morale. Essentially, Employee Relations is concerned with preventing and resolving problems involving individuals which arise out of or affect work situationsâ€ (NASA OHCM, 2007).
From the given point, an etiquette is offered to supervisors regarding the review of employee performance including disciplinary actions, how to provide employees with appropriate information depending on the department, regulations, legislations and bargaining agreements, in addition to civil rights and whistleblower protections.
In turn, the field of community relations offers a societal role for public relations. Seitel (2004) comments that a clear understanding of community concerns an open door policy for community leaders, an unlocked and honest flow of information and an sense of regular association and interaction with the community; all of which is imperative for successful community relations. The computer and technology expert, IBM provides a solid understanding of this function.
IBM believes not just in local community but global community. This organization is one of the largest corporate contributors of manpower, monies and equipment to nonprofit organizations (NPOs) and educational institutions worldwide, stressing information technology in the aspects of philanthropic programs and solutions providers. IBM believes in working â€œhand-in-hand with public and nonprofit organizations to design technology solutions that address specific problems. This kind of partnership requires a grantee organizations make that is significant to commitments regarding IBM and to go beyond business as usual, to set clear benchmarks and to focus on measurable resultsâ€ (2007).
The Unison of Organizational and Societal Functions
In actuality, some public relation functions are both organizational and societal. Social responsibility and communications management are two such examples, servicing both internal and external needs simultaneously.
Social responsibility, which also doubles as an environmental factor, is both an internal and external function. Social responsibility is a PR role which is concerned with how organizations handle the business processes to create an overall constructive impact on society; all while acting ethically, contributing to a quality of life for its workforce, and local and global communities. Social responsibility is the â€œrespecting of cultural differences and finds business opportunities in building the skills of employees, the community and the governmentâ€ (Business Respect, 2007). Because of this explanation, Nike seems to be an adequate corporation to describe this function.
Public relations decisions are often affected by social responsibilities, both globally and domestically. These tasks have grown due to negative perceptions from numerous organizational reasons, for example, unsafe products, poor work conditions, lacking service to disadvantaged customers and cultural pollution. In the past, Nike has been the discussion of many forms of these criticisms for instance defiling the environment to violating child labor standards. Using the example of deprived work conditions overseas, Nike responded to these allegations by implementing a code of conduct which â€œdemanded more socially responsible actions by its contractorsâ€ when determining sweatshop-like conditions (Armstrong & Kotler, 2005) in the meanwhile sending an employee to each location daily to mandate compliance. Domestically, Nike was once accused of targeting low-income youth with its most expensive shoe. In reaction to this charge, Nike implemented a community affairs board which awards cash grants to certain NPOs which benefit underprivileged individuals.
Just as social responsibility is a dual function of PR, doest is communications management. Communications management is the methodical development, realization, audit and revision of communications, internally and externally; therefore, it envelopes all forms of communicatons and relations. Wikipedia states that features of this classification embrace â€œdeveloping corporate communication strategies, designing internal and external communications directives, and managing the flow of information, including online communicationâ€ such as organizing crisis communications for employees and providing corporate presentations to external publics such as media and consumers. Internally, a clear example of communications management would be the well-thought communiquÐ¹ from AOL regarding its merger with Time Warner. Externally, a reasonable example would include the 2005 Bank of Montreal proxy statement sent to its investors.
Organizational and societal functions of public relations closely resemble the internal and external roles of the pituitary gland in the human body. The pituitary gland controls hormones which influence internal growth as well as external appearances. The same can be said for public relation functions; organizational roles impact the growth and development of the internal structure while societal chores address the progression and enhancement of the outer image. In conclusion and in awareness of the authoressâ€™ philosophical views, maybe the organization of the human body will collide with the corporate sense and create â€œpituitary relations: the inside and out of communications with publics to sustain overall growth and cultivate an acceptable, attractive, altruistic image.â€ In short, a piece of advice for anatomy and public relations fields: comprehend and regulate your innards and exteriors.
University of Maryland Medical Center. (2007). Pituitary Gland. Retrieved on
August 10, 2007, from http://www.umm.edu/endocrin/pitgland.htm
NASAâ€™s Office of Human Management. (2007). What is Employee Relations? Retrieved on August 10, 2007, from http://ohcm.gsfc.nasa.gov/employee_relations/whatis.htm
IBM. (2007). Community Relations. Retrieved on August 10, 2007, from,
Business Respect (2007). Corporate Social Responsibility. Retrieved on August 10, 2007,
Armstrong, G., & [Kotler, P. (2005). Marketing: An introduction,7th ed. New York:
Wikipedia. (2007). Communications Management. Retrieved on August 10, 2007, from
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