Business / Wal-Mart'S Strategic Activity System

Wal-Mart'S Strategic Activity System

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Autor:  anton  21 December 2010
Tags:  Strategic,  Activity,  System
Words: 1122   |   Pages: 5
Views: 417

1. Wal-Mart的競爭策略與核心能耐?

我們試著以Wal-Mart的Strategic Activity System來回答:

a. 藍色表示競爭策略主題(theme)

b. 綠色表示策略主題下相關行動

c. 多數行動彼此高度鏈結

d. IT系統當然是核心能耐,但應

屬主題下的策略行動。

不難發現由幾個主題所建構而成的activity system其實有相當的因果模糊性與模仿不確定性,擇要說明如下:

ha. 初期即在小鎮設點(局部獨占!)。打破零售業往人多的都會地區展店之思維、卻也迴避了競爭壓力。

b. 由於地點偏僻,加上供應商只願提供都會地區配送,斥資設立物流配送中心成為不得不然的行動;自然地在價值鏈中整合了上游的物流配送。

c. Low Price在業內是偶爾為之的促銷活動。Wal-Mart卻讓EDLP成為策略指導原則!既倒果為因,也讓競爭者迷惑而怯步。消費者省了搜尋成本、Wal-Mart省了廣告,而此一方針更將營運成本較同業低到~5%。

bd. 不斷加碼於資訊系統,當時可算是異數,被競爭者視為反向操作。

e. 及早投資了衛星通訊,串連物流與資訊流,是洞燭機先的創舉。當時industry 2nd leader有這種魄力實屬不易。

所以當競爭者想copy Wal-Mart EDLP的表象時,缺乏營運效能以及背後龐大系統建置,自然就非敵手。

2. Wal-Mart在美國之外的機會如何?

試著由外部一致性(Fit 當地政治、經濟、社會與技術等構面?)、內部一致性(零售品牌與通路國際化是既定目標?)與動態一致性(Fit 核心能力與資源配置?能否輸出?)考量,簡要將策略主題涵蓋部分各別breakdown如下:

a. 營運條件差異能克服?

- 物流、運輸的技術限制:除了國際大廠(寶鹼,可口可樂等)的貨品或有成本及供輸的優勢,其他廠商在當地貨品則不盡然;倉儲與物流的建立與規劃也非一蹴可幾。Wal-Mart想要在短期複製殊為不易。另外,海外的營業模式很可能與美國(鄉村為主,每一單點的進貨量不大)大不相同,未必需自行設立發貨物流中心。

- 人事成本:在美國企業文化可支持其較低的人事成本,在海外則未必盡然。最近將德國事業出售給Metro AG(附錄2),為一最佳佐證;但若一味追求人事低成本低廉的國度或地區,其消費水準、城鄉差異與貧富差距可能又無法遂行於小鎮展店的模式。例如在中國,Wal-Mart 小鎮策略就窒礙難行。

b. 能適應迥異的法令與社會文化?

在美國境內擁有的採購勢力、商譽與龐大規模所產生的成本效率等「品牌槓桿」均不易輸出。在海外是完全新的環境。像歐洲不同的政治氛圍、高人力成本、建全且強悍的工會、不同的客服標準、不同的環保與安全法規等…

c. 企業文化及經營模式能兼容並蓄?

企業文化已是Wal-Mart的核心能力。各國政經情勢、法規,文化,民族性…的不同,必定無法完全複製企業文化、經營風格與興業精神。Self-service可沿用?Company cheers有效嗎?Greeters有加值?員工能感受employee與associate的的差異?EDLP訴求有用?在在都應評估。零售通路必需深入社會文化底層,與當地脈動緊密結合。

d. IT system?

IT優勢可成功複製到美國以外的國家的機會較人事、倉儲與物流為高,至少比較能跨越政經與文化的藩籬。利用完善的國內資訊及商店管理,經營技巧和後勤保障等豐富經驗以為海外借鏡,較容易實現。

根據以上的分析,要成功拓展海外市場並不是單純複製其美國經驗到任一區域,

- 需有選擇性的進入:人口多、強大的中產階級、消費習慣或需求同質性等考量;

- 並選擇適當的產品組合:製造源掌握、品質、物流運輸成本等考量;

- 將的企業文化微調導入:跨國企業的「全球在地化(glocalization)」有太多作業細節要考慮;

- 配合當地的法規與民情:工資成本?工會組織與結構?勞工法令?勞資關係?都應入境問俗!

- 競爭者分析的功課:策略若有調整,戰術面當然要調整與反應。當未能達到預期scale或策略目標,退出機制要預先計畫。最近退出南韓為一例證(附錄1)。

3. Wal-Mart宜專注零售本業(item expansion)或多角化(diversification)?

如果這是個非A則B的問題,我們建議專注零售本業。畢竟誠如Scott所言,在一般商品與食品的折扣零售仍可成長十到二十年;而在細項銷售的市佔率方面,更有努力空間。沒有建築在核心能耐上的多角化總是危險的!

若將多角化分為「相關」與「非相關」兩類(Rumelt, Wrigley),真的要做,建議Wal-Mart至多嘗試「相關」部分─意即新事業活動和現有的事業可以聯結,或是活動之間有數個共通的活動價值鏈要素,而通常這些聯結是基於製造、運籌、行銷、通路或IT技術任一環節的共通性,意即植基於核心能耐的多角化,以產生synergy與範疇經濟的實現。例如創造walmart.com,與實體利用同樣IT與物流系統同時為Reach與Richness增色;又或許可考慮貨運、物流業,在已佈建的能力上加碼。我們也可利用課堂所學作為佐證:當內部專業能力不足、欲擴張事業產生的競爭優勢潛力有限時,以outsourcing為宜;潛力看好時,以acquisition為南針。兩者皆暫時毋需內化。另外,若要擴張scope與建立強勢通路品牌或進入障礙,多角化不是唯一策略。垂直整合、合作關係與策略性委外及策略聯盟等都能達到效果。若獲利與前景可觀,再考慮購併、合資或成立新事業單位以進行多角化。

4. 您若是投資人,考慮投資Wal-Mart嗎?

a. 過往績效雖不等於前景,但由三十年來的表現與近來投資與擴張計劃,加上Wal-Mart的龍頭地位,值得考慮。

b. 產品或有生命週期或景氣榮枯,但通路存在與價值是被肯定的;以Wal-Mart的市占率與零售業的空間,未來

仍有相當成長動能(like Tesco takes 25%+ in UK)。值得考慮。

c. 只要Wal-Mart持續在經營團隊、IT技術投資、一本正派經營的初衷(找專業經理人、家族鮮少插手),也兼顧員

附錄 1 (PR @ Wal-Mart Website)

16-Supercenter Chain to be Sold to South Korean Retailer Shinsegae

BENTONVILLE, Arkansas – (May 22, 2006) — Mike Duke, Vice-Chairman of Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., announced today that Shinsegae Co. has agreed to purchase the company’s South Korean retail business for Won 825 billion (US$882 million) .

Shinsegae is South Korea’s leading retailer with 79 E-Mart hypermarkets in the country. It will continue to operate Wal-Mart Korea’s 16 stores but rename them E-Mart.

“As we continue to focus our efforts where we can have the greatest impact on our growth strategy, it became increasingly clear that in South Korea’s current environment it would be difficult for us to reach the scale we desired,” said Duke. “We have decided to sell our business to the market leader as we believe this is the best option for our associates, customers and shareholders.”

“Our very capable associates in South Korea have made strong contributions to our business,” continued Duke. “We are confident they will continue to have growth and career development opportunities as part of Shinsegae. We will work closely with Shinsegae to have a smooth transition.”

Wal-Mart will continue to have a Global Procurement sourcing office in Seoul. Wal-Mart stores in the United Kingdom, United States, Mexico and other markets carry South Korean products including apparel, plush toys and home textiles.

The agreement is subject to the approval by the Korea Fair Trade Commission.

About Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.

Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. operates Wal-Mart Stores, Supercenters, Neighborhood Markets and SAM’S CLUB locations in the United States. The company also operates in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Germany, Guatemala, Honduras, Japan, Mexico, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, South Korea and the United Kingdom. The company’s securities are listed on the New York and Pacific stock exchanges under the symbol WMT. More information about Wal-Mart can be found by visiting www.walmartfacts.com. Online merchandise sales are available at www.walmartfacts.com. Online merchandise sales are available at www.walmart.com

附錄 2 (節錄PR @ Wal-Mart Website )

85-Supercenter Chain to be Sold to Metro AG

BENTONVILLE, Ark., July 28, 2006 – Michael Duke, Vice-Chairman of Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., announced today that the company has agreed to sell its German retail business to Metro AG. The terms of the agreement were not disclosed.

“As we focus our efforts on where we can have the greatest impact on our growth and return on investment strategies, it has become increasingly clear that in Germany’s business environment it

would be difficult for us to obtain the scale and results we desire,” said Duke. “This sale positions us to increase our focus on the markets where we can achieve our objectives.”

“We appreciate the contributions our German associates have made to build up our business in Germany,” Duke added. “We will work closely with Metro to have a smooth transition.”

The Company expects to incur a pre-tax loss related to this transaction of approximately US$1 billion for the Company’s second quarter of fiscal year 2007.

Wal-Mart’s international operations comprise 2,700 stores in 14 countries outside the United States. In the past year, the company became majority owner of Seiyu in Japan, completed its acquisition of Sonae in Brazil, and expanded into six new markets including Northern Ireland, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. Combined with its U.S. and SAM’s CLUB divisions, Wal-Mart operates more than 6,600 retail outlets globally with sales of US$312 billion last year.

Wal-Mart Germany operates 85 Supercenters employing 11,000 associates. Wal-Mart entered the German market eight years ago with the acquisition of the Wertkauf and Interspar hypermarket chains. The transaction is subject to approval by the competent anti-trust authorities.



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