English / Should Cigarettes Be Banned?
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Autor: anton 13 June 2011
Words: 1487 | Pages: 6
Tobacco smoking has been around since the Ancient Mayan and Aztec civilizations. Although these civilizations did not invent the cigarette, they did smoke the dried up leaves of tobacco plants. Spanish explorers observed the use of the weed and shortly thereafter introduced it to Europe. Before the end of the 17th century, smoking had spread through most of the known world. Tobacco, native to North America, was cultivated in the Americas and transported to Europe. At first, tobacco was particularly expensive and only the wealthy Europeans could afford to buy it. Later in Brazil, cigarettes were invented and were first used in Latin America. It was not until the 19th century, when the automatic cigarette rolling machines were put into operation in the United States, that smoking became exceptionally popular. King James I of England recognized the threats of tobacco and battled against it. As a result, many countries outlawed tobacco for a period of time (Ward 20Ð²Ð‚â€œ21).
On January 1964, Luther L. Terry of the U.S. Surgeon GeneralÐ²Ð‚â„¢s Advisory Committee issued the first report on Smoking and Health. In 1965, Congress adopted the federal cigarette labeling and advertising, which implanted the all too familiar labels on cigarette packs and asked for a yearly report on health consequences from smoking (Woznicki). On March 30, 2003 Bloomberg, mayor of New York, banned smoking in bars and restaurants throughout the state. A year later, 1,000 fewer deaths were reported as smoking-related. (Hill) On January of 1994, the Environmental Protection Agency declared secondhand smoking to be responsible for 3,000 deaths per year (Freeman 6-7). In response to these researches, many different cigarette techniques have been implemented through the years to include the Ð²Ð‚ÑšsmokelessÐ²Ð‚Ñœ Accord cigarette, the mainly-glycerin Eclipse cigarette, and the common cigarette people smoke every day, the Ð²Ð‚ÑšCharcoal FilterÐ²Ð‚Ñœ cigarette (Ð²Ð‚ÑšAnatomyÐ²Ð‚Ñœ).
Most smokers turn a blind-eye towards research and studies showing that diseases and smoking go hand in hand. Some smokers do not even know why, time and again, they light up these fuming time bombs, even when they are fully conscious of the health impediments brought on by cigarette. The answer is quite simple: Nicotine. Nicotine is carried to the brain via the bloodstream where it stimulates surrounding brain cells causing them to give off electrical impulses which trigger nearby cells. The outcome is the production of dopamine, a chemical messenger that links pleasure-regulating structures in the center of the brain to the higher areas behind the forehead that control conscious thought. The pleasure produced by dopamine is short-lasted but leaves a person wanting more of that pleasure. Although their conscious tells smokers that what they are doing is wrong, the brainÐ²Ð‚â„¢s mesolimbic reward system, which lets us feel pleasure when we eat, procreate, or socialize, tells them differently and does not obey to anything else. Dopamine originates in the brainÐ²Ð‚â„¢s ventral tegmental area, a group of dopamine-containing neurons, then travels to the nucleus accumbens, a tiny structure the size of a squished pea, and activates the amygdala, a structure vital for emotions and development of long-term memories. In 1995, researchers added nicotine to the list of dopamine-stimulating substances (Niiler 17-23)
In May 1998, a British journal called Nature stated that nicotine withdrawal Ð²Ð‚Ñšdisrupts the reward system and may force smokers to light up again after trying to quit.Ð²Ð‚Ñœ Dopamine levels in the brain rise when taking part in everyday pleasures such as eating chocolate, but when an addict drugs him or herself, dopamine levels rise up to 10 times higher as if a tsunami of dopamine had overcome oneÐ²Ð‚â„¢s brain (Niiler 17-23).
Overtime, nicotine abuse may physically change the brain by reducing the amount of dopamine receptors. Edythe London of the National Institute on Drug Abuse observed that even the suggestion nicotine can trigger the brainÐ²Ð‚â„¢s reward system. (Niiler 17-23) Removing nicotine would not make them safe though since Ð²Ð‚Ñšcigarette smoke contains chemicals such as arsenic(poison), ammonia(toilet cleaner), carbon monoxide(car exhaust fumes), methane(swamp gas), a acetone(nail polish remover) and formaldehyde(used to preserve dead bodies), among thousands ofÐ²Ð‚Ñœ other chemicals. Yet, without nicotine a person would not become addicted to the cigarette and would not be pressured to smoke, therefore reducing the risk of dying from these other chemicals (Douglas 31-36). In a study using lab mice and heroin, nicotine, cocaine, alcohol, and marijuana, nicotine was the most addictive with 1/3 of the consumers becoming addicted (Niiler 17-23). After nicotine consumption through a cigarette, a smokerÐ²Ð‚â„¢s bodyÐ²Ð‚â„¢s heart speeds up fifteen - twenty-five beats per minute. Blood pressure goes up ten to twenty points. Circulation to extremities is cut down and therefore skin temperature drops up to six degrees. Hypothalamus curves cravings for food and muscles become more relaxed (Silverstein, Silverstein, Silverstein).
According to Silverstein, Ð²Ð‚Ñšnicotine works by mimicking the hormone adrenaline and the neurotransmitter acelthycholine, which activates the brainÐ²Ð‚â„¢s alarm system and causes the smoker to become alert.Ð²Ð‚Ñœ Nicotine addictions control a smokerÐ²Ð‚â„¢s mood and cause a subtle high (Silverstein, Silverstein, Silverstein).
On February 28, 1994 a magazine show on ABC News aired an expose on the manipulation of nicotine by the tobacco companies. The shows resulted from a year-long investigation by Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Walt Bogdanich, one of the showÐ²Ð‚â„¢s producers. In reply to these segments of the show, the FDA sent a letter stating that they were willing to regulate Ð²Ð‚Ñštobacco products as drugs.Ð²Ð‚Ñœ Nicotine in tobacco products is not regulated by the FDA because it is not considered a food or a drug. A drug is, according to the FDA, sold with the intention of harming the Ð²Ð‚Ñšstructure and function of the bodyÐ²Ð‚Ñœ and cigarettes are advertised as Ð²Ð‚Ñšfor smoking pleasure onlyÐ²Ð‚Ñœ (Douglas 31-36).
Nicotine is regulated by the FDA in all nicotine products expect cigarettes with the excuse that the tobacco companies did not know that nicotine was highly toxic and addictive. In a trial (Cipollone vs. Ligeett) internal tobacco companyÐ²Ð‚â„¢s documents showed that the industry does understand the dangers of nicotine. The following is an internal report that William L. Dunn Jr., senior scientist in Philip Morris Tobacco Company, wrote in 1972:
As with eating and copulating, so it is with smoking. The physiological effect serves as the primary incentive; all other incentives are secondaryÐ²Ð‚Â¦Without nicotine, the argument goes, there would be no smoking. Some strong evidence can be marshaled to support this argument: (1) No one has ever become a cigarette smoker by smoking cigarettes without nicotine. (2) Most of the physiological responses to inhaled smoke have been shown to be nicotine-relatedÐ²Ð‚Â¦
The cigarette should be conceived not as a product but as a package. The product is nicotine. The cigarette is but one of the many package layers. There is the carton, which contains the pack, which contains the cigarette, which contains the smoke. The smoke is the final package. The smoker must strip off all these package layers to get to that which he seeksÐ²Ð‚Â¦ (Douglas 31-36).
In 1986, five years before Surgeon GeneralÐ²Ð‚â„¢s addiction report, Philip MorrisÐ²Ð‚â„¢s researchers found nicotine to be addictive in lab rats. The research was to be published in Psychopharmacology, a respected science journal, but was withdrawn on Ð²Ð‚Ñšthe companyÐ²Ð‚â„¢s orders.Ð²Ð‚Ñœ Philip Morris ordered the lab to be shut down and all evidence to be destroyed (Douglas 31-36).
Many smokers consider their cigarettes a temporary torch, glowing with liberty and freedom of choice. Yet, the smoke emitted by cigarettes is not only harmful to the smokersÐ²Ð‚â„¢ health but to the health of those around them. In newspapers and magazines, many cartoons have been drawn to instigate a sense of shame in a smoker when they light up around nonsmokers, but these only seem to be completely ignored by the intended audience (see Fig. 1). Cigarettes give off airborne toxins to include nicotine, arsenic, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, cyanide, methane, and carbon monoxide. The practice of involuntarily inhaling these toxins is often referred to as secondhand smoking, passive smoking, or environmental tobacco smoking. Passive smoking, considered a Group A carcinogen in humans (Rehkopf), has been held accountable for over 3,000 lung cancer-related deaths annually (Glantz). Secondhand smoking also causes approximately 150,000 to 300,000 cases yearly of bronchitis and pneumonia in children of up to eighteen months (Jarvik) and 26,000 cases of asthma in children (Glantz). According to the EPA, secondhand smoking causes heart disease, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), and retarded fetal growth. On average, secondhand smoking takes a toll of 22,000 to 69,000 deaths from heart disease annually. Researchers have even discovered that secondhand smoking can be as dangerous as smoking a cigarette (Gianoulis).
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