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Autor: anton 20 November 2010
Words: 2077 | Pages: 9
Karen A. Mingst in her book "Essentials of International Relations" gives a definition "European Union (EU) is a union of twenty-five European States, formerly the European Economic Community; designed originally during the 1950s for economic integration, but since expanded into a closer political and economic union."1 In 1951, the European Union initially called the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) formed as a pact between six countries (Belgium, West Germany, Luxembourg, France, Italy and the Netherlands), in order to obtain economic and political corporation. Originally concerned with coal and steel, the states hoped to ensure a serene outlook for Europe.2 The European Union has expanded to include a wide range of issues including the environment, transportation, and employment. Also, the importance of security and foreign affairs has increased over time.3
The European Union is growing rapidly, and many countries struggle to gain admittance. Furthermore, current member states do not want the European Union to cease to function partly due to the excessive amount of new states.4 Consequently, the expansion of this organization is currently a controversial issue facing many European
1 Mingst, Karen A. "Essentials of International Relations." 3rd Ed. 2004 by W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. page 317
2"Euro-glossary: European Union" (BBC News Online, 30 April 2001), 1. Retrieved 5 April 2006.
3 "Euro-glossary: European Union", 1.
4 "EU expansion Ð’â€˜an economic boost'" (BBC News Online, 30 April 2004),1. Retrieved 5 April 2006.
countries. This research paper examines the positive and negative sides of the European Union's expansion. More I am talking about benefits and taking a side of saying "yes" to the expansion. By saying "yes" to the enlargement I am coming up with the solution about that controversial issue and how should it be done.
The Three Elements of the EU
The European Union established five key goals necessary for its lasting existence.5 Along with the five objectives, the European Union is also split into three different components. The first element, the European Community, deals with the single
market and the free will of travel across state borders. In the second element Common Foreign and Security Policy, the goal of states is to hold institutional positions and to be included in foreign security issues. Finally the branch of Justice and Home Affairs focuses on incorporating certain policies of member-states into one collective law.6
Benefits of the EU
The European Union set certain legal and economic criteria for admittance of new members including trade, the environment, and majority treatment.7 These qualifications must be strictly enforced for the expansion of Europe to challenge the United States as a superpower without compromising their domestic interests.8 Europe would benefit from
continued expansion because it would be under one currency. This would facilitate trade between all member states and the economies of exporting countries would flourish.
5 "Euro-glossary: European Union", 1.
6 "Euro-glossary: European Union", 2.
7Belt, Don. "Europe's Big Gamble." National Geographic May 2004 pp.54-65. SIRS Knowledge Source. University of Indianapolis Library. Retrieved 3 April 2006 Page 2
8 Belt, Don. "Europe's Big Gamble." Page 1
Tariffs would be abolished, so there would be no obstacles in the way of increased commerce. Accordingly, the European Union is closing in on the United States in both political and economic areas.9 A national security expert in Budapest, Miklos Derer, explains, "Our yes vote means we've made a choice to be Europeans. It means the end of ambiguity."10
Many benefits can be attained by the expansion of the Europe Union. For example, the Union spends millions of dollars to better highways, stop radioactive waste dumping, and improve border checks. Members would therefore gain from the increased attention paid to their needs.11 Minorities present in countries vying for admission to the European Union benefit because of the recent equal treatment condition for admittance to the Union.12
Along with minorities, farmers have discovered a way to profit from becoming members of the European Union. European Union subsides can aid farmers in upgrading their equipment in order to compete with larger European businesses.13 The continued expansion of the European Union will eventually assistance every member, both new and old. However, big businesses may feel threatened by the increase of competition through the continued expansion of the Union. On the other hand, advantage of continued expansion would include 300,000 new jobs to be developed by the European Union
9 Belt, Don. "Europe's Big Gamble." Page 1
10 Belt, Don. "Europe's Big Gamble." Page 2
11 Belt, Don. "Europe's Big Gamble." Page 3
12 Belt, Don. "Europe's Big Gamble." Page 2
13 Belt, Don. "Europe's Big Gamble." Page 4
Current members are concerned Entering nations also have many doubts concerning a loss of newly founded nationality
and competition in business. The broadening of the Union to include newly nationalized states would create a sense of instability that might threaten the Union as well as the individual states. However, the increase of capital, jobs, and pure opportunity seem to outweigh the doubts of prospective members.
Newly admitted countries are not as developed as older members in areas of productivity, income, and health; therefore, progression in these three areas will be slow and intermittent. Additionally, some of the European Union's budget might be spent on insuring the development of newly admitted states instead of focusing on the existing members. Helena Zapala, who sells cheese on the streets in Poland, Krakow, comments, "The rich get richer, the poor get poorer."15 By saying this, Zapala contradicts the thought of the longtime members and implies that the longtime members of the European Union benefit from the admittance of new members, while the newly admitted states receive
Being the Outsider
The growth of the European Union has negatively impacted states outside of the organization. For example, Hord Crystal, a United States jewelry company, has
experienced a decrease in exports since March of 2004 because of restraints placed on the
14"EU expansion Ð’â€˜an economic boost'" Page 1
15 Belt, Don. "Europe's Big Gamble." Page 2
United States by the European Union because of illegal export subsidies. Taxes on United States exporters are rapidly increasing each month. The European Union imposed these large taxes on products that accounted for a small percentage of European imports so the United States would not lose their main exporting proceeds.16 W. Henson Moore,
President and Chief Executive Officer of the American Forest and Paper Association states, "The EU's retaliatory tariffs have already done substantial damage to a number of our companies who are seeing significant losses to their European market share." American businesses could be finished with European trade because European consumers are seeking new suppliers within Europe and Asia that have always been quite competitive with the United States.17 Members of the European Union have given some of their power to the Union in order for it to be able to act without interference from individual state governments.18 As a result, exports in the European Union member-states will rise as a result of the collapse of the trade border limitations.19 This served as another step in the unification of the European World. The goal through expansion was to create one solid body that could compete with a superpower such as the United States.
Visibility to the People of Europe
On top of trade barriers being broken down and currency being unified, there is
one common legal system that incorporates various aspects of each member.20 This
16 Sparshott, Jeffrey. "U.S firms hit hard by EU sanctions." The Washington Times, 31 July 2005. EBSCOhost. University of Indianapolis Library. Retrieved 8 April 2006 page 1
17 Sparshott, Jeffrey. "U.S firms hit hard by EU sanctions." Page 2
18 "Euro-glossary: European Union." Page 2
19 "EU expansion Ð’â€˜an economic boost'" Page 1
20 "Reuniting Europe: The fifth enlargement," (Europarl Online, 30 April 2005.) retrieved 8 April 2006
unified code facilities foreign relations and different legal situations that may involve more than one state. In the United States there is dispute when crimes are committed in one state and the consequences differ from that in another state. By unifying the legal system, these disputes are avoided entirely.
Former German president Johannes Rau, spoke to the European Parliament and
stated that steps need to be taken to increase the amount of visibility of the European Union in the daily lives of citizens.21 Without the continued support of the people the European Union does not stand a chance for successful expansion. The people involved have to be interested. They have to be able to relate to the benefits presented, or they will revolt against it. Along with the citizens the governments of the various member states must be willing to compromise with other member states in order to accomplish their common goal of expansion without diminishing the benefits of current members.22
The expansion of the European Union is controversial for many reasons. The unified currency enables trade and a free market for all of Europe, but it also threatens smaller companies in lesser-developed states that may not be able to compete with the businesses in the United Kingdom. Free movement also could impede upon the establishment of a greater sense of nationalism in certain countries. On the other hand, it could grant states a greater sense of belonging in a unified culture. From currency to
nationalism and law to trade, many cases can be made for and against continued expansion.
21 "Reuniting Europe: The fifth enlargement," Page 19, 20
22 "Enlargement Research Bulletin," (Europa Online, November 2004) retrieved 8 April 2006 page 2,3.
The following are two recommendations stating what should be done about the
European Union controversy. How deep should the European Union expand?
Ð’â€¢ The European Union should continue integrating new states into the system. The deeper the European Union becomes, the more influential it will be in rivaling a superpower.
Ð’â€¢ The European Union should focus on the political aspects of the existing Union before concerning itself with the addition of more members. Deep unification should be priority over slight unification with the addition of new members.
The European Union, being so large already, should focus in on the existing members. The concentration on pure unification of members will benefit the Union more in the long run than the pushing of adding new members. The Union should focus attention on the continuation of a free market to build a stronger organization. Accepting more members does not necessarily strengthen the Union; in ways it may even hinder it. Building a smaller and completely unified Union makes the organization more complex and therefore stronger as well. At this point Bulgaria and Romania are acceding countries and they should become members of the EU on 1 January 2007; the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey, and Croatia are candidate countries. If applicable, this should be the final expansion and the European Union should concentrate on internal projects. For example, political union is suggested to be the next focus of the European Union. A European tax, minimum wage as well as political parties are suggested to
correspond with this conclusion.23
The most beneficial about the expansion to the European Union is political and
economical power, most of all political. The biggest concern is with the domestic consequences as well as the international repercussions. But as I already stated earlier in the research that the increase of capital, jobs, and pure opportunity overweight the doubts of prospective members. The European Union has focused on expansion for a long while, it is now time for it to change and concentrate on providing opportunities for the people.24
23 Browne, Anthony, "Political union should be the EU's next big project, says Prodi report," (Times Online, 25 February 2006). Retrieved 3 April 2006. Pages 1,2.
24 Browne, Anthony, "Political union should be the EU's next big project, says Prodi report," 2.
Belt, Don. "Europe's Big Gamble." National Geographic May 2004 pp.54-65. SIRS Knowledge Source. University of Indianapolis Library. Retrieved 3 April 2006
Browne, Anthony, "Political union should be the EU's next big project, says Prodi report," (Times Online, 25 February 2006). Retrieved 3 April 2006. Pages 1,2.
"EU expansion Ð’â€˜an economic boost'" (BBC News Online, 30 April 2004),1. Retrieved 5 April 2006.
"Euro-glossary: European Union" (BBC News Online, 30 April 2001), 1. Retrieved 5 April 2006.
"Enlargement Research Bulletin," (Europa Online, November 2004.) Retrieved 8 April 2006 page 2, 3.
Mingst, Karen A. "Essentials of International Relations." 3rd Ed. 2004 by W.W. Norton & Company, Inc. page 317. Retrieved 26 April 2006
"Reuniting Europe: The fifth enlargement," (Europarl Online, 30 April 2005.) Retrieved 8 April 2006
Sparshott, Jeffrey. "U.S. firms hit hard by EU sanctions." The Washington Times, 31 July 2005. EBSCOhost. University of Indianapolis Library. Retrieved 8 April 2006 page 1
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