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A Comparison Of Canada'S Health Care System To Japan'S Health Care System By Using Performance Indicators.

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Autor:  anton  22 May 2011
Tags:  Comparison,  Canadas,  Health,  System,  Japans
Words: 1169   |   Pages: 5
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A comparison of Canada's Health care system to Japan's Health care System by using performance indicators.

Life Expectancy and Quality of Life

"Japan spends much less per person on health care than Canada and its citizens live longer than Canadians."( www.ahs.uwaterloo.ca) For example, in 2001, Canadian men and women on average live to 77 years and 82 years respectively, while Japanese men and women on average live to 78 years and 85 years respectively (Conference Board, 102). Meanwhile in 2001, Japan spent $1984 US per person whereas Canada spent $2719 (2789777.pdf, 4).

However, life expectancy does not tell if people are aging comfortably without disabilities. In 1996, Canadian men and women on average appreciated a disability free life until 66.9 years (men) and 70.2 years (women) (Conference Board, 103). However, in 1990, Japanese men and women on average enjoyed a disability free life until age 74.2 years (men) and 78.7 (women) (Conference Board, 103). This data tells us that Japan's females live 93% of their life with no disability whereas Canadian women only live 83% of their life without disability.

Another interesting piece of data is the Self-reported health status, is a resource that informs us of how citizens feel about their health. Canadians mostly believe that they are healthy, 85% claim to have good or better health (Conference Board, 104). We are only second in this belief to the United States, 86% of its citizen's claim to have good or excellent health (Conference Board, 104). Strangely, only 40% of Japanese claim to have good or excellent health (Conference Board, 104).

Finally, Japan's infant mortality rate is low at 3.1 per 1000 live births, it is only second to Iceland 2.7(Conference Board, 104). Meanwhile, Canada's infant mortality rate is 5.3 per 1000 live births and we are ranked 16th overall, but a decade ago we were 5th in this category (Conference Board, 105).In 2005, Nunavut has the highest rate of infant mortality at 13.5 whereas P.E.I and B.C. have the lowest rate at 4.1 (Indicators, 8).

Overall, Japan is doing better than Canada when it comes to Life expectancy and quality of life.

Non-Medical Factors

When it comes to non-medical factors Canada is ranked 15th worldwide, by contrast, Japan is ranked 23rd for these factors (Conference Board, 107). The non-medical factors are body weight, road traffic injuries, sulfur oxide emissions, daily smoking, alcohol consumption, and immunization. Canada did well for daily smoking; only 18% of the population smokes daily (Conference Board, 109). By difference, 31% of Japan's population smokes (Conference Board, 109). However, 15% of Canada's population has a Body Mass Index greater than 30 (Conference Board, 107) Japan is leading this measurement, only 3% of its population has a BMI of greater than 30 (Conference Board, 107). Canada is ranked higher than Japan for non-medical factors because Japan has far more road traffic injuries, about 8,600 per million (Conference Board, 108). Canada has 6,600 road traffic injuries per million (Conference Board, 108). Canada, also, has a much higher rate of immunization at 62% of the population, by contrast, only 30% of Japan's population is immunized (Conference Board, 110). Therefore, Canada has a slightly better rate for non-medical factors. However, Japan clearly trumps Canada when it comes to Health Outcomes.

Health Care Performance indicators for Canada and Japan.

Health Outcomes is a change in the health condition of a person, group or population which is contributable to a planned program or sequence of programs, regardless if a program was meant to change health condition (www.moh.govt.nz). In respect to Health Outcomes, Canada is ranked 20th, whereas Japan is third worldwide to only Mexico and Italy (Conference Board, 112). For example, the mortality rate for men from heart attacks in Canada is 86 persons per 100,000 population, by contrast, Japan's heart attack mortality rate for men is 32 per 100,000 (Conference Board, 114). For women's mortality rate from heart attacks Canada has 42 per 100,000 population, by difference, Japan has 18 per 100,000 population for female heart attack mortality (Conference Board, 115). In respect to male lung cancer mortality, Canada has 10 more deaths per 100,000 population than Japan (Conference Board, 113). However for female lung cancer, there is sizable difference between Canada and Japan. Canada's female lung cancer mortality rate is 35 per 100,000 population, by contrast, Japan's rate is 13 per 100,000 population (Conference Board, 113). The rate for Death caused by strokes is higher in Japan for both men and women than it is for Canada. For example, Female mortality rate for stroke in Canada is about 36 per 100,000, while Japan's female mortality rate for stroke is about 58 per 100,000 (Conference Board, 116). It appears that Japan Health Care System infrastructure is performing better than Canada's Health Care System. Furthermore, Japan spends less than Canada on its health care system.

Canada's and Japan's Health Care Resources

Japan had fewer physicians than Canada: in 1994 Japan had 1.4 physicians per 1000 citizens while Canada had 2.1 physicians per 1000 (OECD Health data 2006). In 1994, Canada had 11.1 nurses per 1000; by contrast, Japan had 6.6 nurses per 1000, a difference of 4.5 per 1000 citizens! (OECD Health data 2006). More recently, Japan has inceased the number of nurses to 7.8 per 1000 and Canada has decreased it nurses to 9.9 per 1000 (Conference Board, 121). As reported in Hird Economics, Canada has so few MRI units that many Canadians have to pay out of pocket to have a MRI scan (Hird, 99) By contrast, Japan has 23.2 MRI units per 1000 population (Conference Board, 121). As previously stated , Japan spends much less on health than Canada.

Our Recommendations

Japan is doing better Canada when it comes to life expectancy and quality; and Health outcomes. On the other side, Canada has better rates in respect to non-medical factors and in health resources. In light of all this information, we believe that Canadians are willing to improve their health; they are smoking less and they opt for immunization. However, Canadians are too confident in their individual health, they need more education about risky behaviors, for example, Canadians need to monitor there weight (BMI), alcohol consumption and dangerous activities. With all that said, we cannot ignore the fact that Canada's population is aging and older citizens are more likely to need medical care than younger citizens.


www.ahs.uwaterloo.ca. How Should Performance of The Canadian Health System Be Measured?. Website: http://www.ahs.uwaterloo.ca/~cahr/news/vol19/perform.html Date Viewed: March 13, 2007.

2789777.pdf, 4. OECD Health Data 2003. Website: http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/10/20/2789777.pdf Date Viewed: March 13, 2007

Conference Board. Understanding Health Care Cost Drivers and Escalators. PDF format. Website: http://www.health.gov.ab.ca/resouces/publications/conference_board.pdf Date viewed: March 13, 2007

www.moh.govt.nz Health Outcomes Website: http://www.moh.govt.nz/moh.nsf/0/15f5c5045e7a1dd4cc256b6b0002b038?OpenDocument Date viewed: March 13, 2007

OECD Health data 2006. OECD Health data 2006 Trial Version (offered on the OECD website). Date Viewed: March 14, 2007.

Hird. Working with Economics: A Canadian Framework. 6th edition. By Richard Hird. Prentice Hall, Toronto 2002.

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