Miscellaneous / Health Care : Cdc And Prevention
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Autor: anton 11 December 2010
Words: 1968 | Pages: 8
The purpose of preventative medicine is to identify health conditions that can affect a patient's health in the future. One agency that focuses on preventative measures in the health care arena is the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.
Description and Structure of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention
The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was founded in 1946 (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). The CDC is one of the thirteen agencies that operates under the Department of Health and Human Services which is, "Ð’â€¦the principal agency in the United States government for protecting the health and safety of all AmericansÐ’â€¦" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). "Today, CDC is globally recognized for conducting research and investigations and for its action oriented approach" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). Not only does the CDC help promote individual health improvement, but the CDC also monitors and combats threats of terrorism that would affect the health of the American people (www.cdc.gov, n.d.).
The CDC was originally located in Atlanta, Georgia and its primary task was to combat malaria. There are four buildings that now house the CDC; they are the Global Communications Center, Emerging Infectious Disease Laboratory, Headquarters and Emergency Operations Center, and the Environmental Health Laboratory (www.cdc.gov, n.d.).
Agency Functions of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention
According to the CDC website the, "CDC is committed to achieving true improvements in people's health" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). One of the ways that the CDC strives to achieve these improvements is by "defining specific health impact goals" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). These goals include the identification, detection, and prevention of things such as, "emerging infectious diseases (SARS, monkeypox, pandemic influenza), terrorism, environmental threats (hurricanes, wildfires, toxic chemical spills), aging population, [and] lifestyle choices (tobacco use, poor nutrition, lack of physical fitness)" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). There are six strategies that the CDC has identified and adopted in order to help organize and prioritize its "health protection goals" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). These goal strategies include health impact focus, customer-centricity, public health research, leadership, global health impact, and accountability (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). The health impact focus purpose is to organize all of the CDC's resources in order to make the largest impact on society, customer-centricity focuses on marketing what people need to know when addressing health care, public health research investigates and then publishes disease findings (and other health care related issues) to the public for current and future use, the leadership aspect of the strategies show how the CDC balances "partnerships and networks to improve the health system", the global health impact is used to help increase knowledge about health care issues around the world, and accountability is used to show how effective and efficient the CDC is with the funding that is provided by society (www.cdc.gov, n.d.).
The CDC's health protection goals center around four themes; these themes are "healthy people in every stage of life, healthy people in healthy places, people prepared for emerging health threats, [and] healthy people in a healthy world" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.).
Healthy People In Every Stage Of Life
"All people, and especially those at greater risk of health disparities, will achieve their optimal lifespan with the best possible quality of health in every stage of life" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). The zero to three-year age group is identified as "start strong" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). This goal is to ensure that all infants and toddlers have a strong, healthy start in life. Vaccinations, well child check ups, and child safety all pertain to this goal.
The second stage of the goal includes the four to eleven-year age range. This theme focuses on, "increase[ing] the number of children who grow up healthy, safe, and ready to learn" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.).
The third stage of the goal addresses those adolescents in the twelve to nineteen-year age bracket. The main purpose of this stage is to prepare adolescents for leading healthy lives as "productive members of society" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). The CDC identifies this as achieving healthy independence.
The fourth stage is labeled as living a healthy, satisfying and productive life, and this stage pertains to the twenty to forty-nine-year age category. The goal of this stage is to, "increase the number of adults who are healthy and able to participate fully in life activities and enter their later years with optimum health" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.).
The final stage of the goal is identified as live better, longer and it is directed toward the fifty and older age group. The main focus of this stage is to, "Increase the number of older adults who live longer, high-quality, productive, and independent lives" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.).
Healthy People In Healthy Places
"The places where people live, work, learn, and play will protect and promote their health and safety, especially those at greater risk of health disparities" (www.cdc.gov, n.d). The basic purpose is to ensure a healthy setting, which could include safe living quarters, healthy air, clean water, adequate sanitation in the food service settings, healthy food choices in vending machines, and/or quality health care (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). One way that the CDC can disseminate information gathered along with support of the data is CDC WONDER (Wide-ranging OnLine Data for Epidemiologic Research). CDC WONDER is, "Ð’â€¦valuable in public health research, decision making, priority setting, program evaluation, and resource allocation" (http://cdc.wonder.gov/, 2006). The principal function of CDC WONDER is to help support the primary function of the CDC.
People Prepared For Emerging Health Threats
"People in all communities will be protected from infectious, occupational, environmental, and terrorist threats" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). This theme is categorized into three parts: pre-event, event and post event (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). "Preparedness goals will address scenarios that include natural and intentional threats. The first round of these scenarios will encompass influenza, anthrax, plague, emerging infections, toxic chemical exposure, and radiation exposure" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.).
The pre-event focuses on increasing the development of interventions that could potentially protect people from chemical, biological, and naturally occurring illnesses, and radiological agents that could promote infection. Another goal is to decrease the amount of time it takes to coordinate with other agencies when faced with a potential biological, chemical, or terrorist health threat. A decrease in the amount of time it takes to notify the public of health risks that are associated with "chemical, biological, radiological agents in tissue, food or environmental samples that cause threats to the public's health" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.).
The event encompasses decreasing, "Ð’â€¦the time to identify causes, risk factors, and appropriate interventions for those affected by threats to the public's health" and decreasing, "Ð’â€¦the time needed to provide countermeasures and health guidance to those affected by threats to the public's health" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.).
The post event consists of three goals. The first goal is to decrease the amount of time it takes for health care services and environmental services to return to pre-event levels (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). The second goal is to "improve the long-term follow up" to all persons and agencies "affected by the threats to the public's health" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). Decreasing the amount of time it takes to implement suggestions after a threat to public health is the final step in the post event goal.
Healthy People In A Healthy World
"People around the world will live safer, healthier and longer lives through health promotion, health protection, and health diplomacy" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). Health promotion is accomplished by sharing information about health care with other nations. Health protection involves offering Americans protection from disease through a "transnational prevention, detection, and response network" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). The CDC has established the National Prevention Information Network (NPIN) to help in the success of this goal. NPIN presents vast amounts of information about health issues that affect the world. On the NPIN website there is information about new HIV drugs, countries that are initiating new health programs, and information on health and wellness conferences around the world (www.cdcnpin.org, n.d.). Finally the CDC and the United States will be seen as the most revered source of information when it comes to health care protection globally. This is how health diplomacy will be realized (www.cdc.gov, n.d.).
Constituencies Served by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention
The CDC serves numerous agencies throughout the United States and the world. Some of the agencies that are served and collaborate with the CDC are:
public health associations; state and local public health departments; federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies and first-responders such as firefighters and rescue workers; practicing health professionals, including physicians, dentists, nurses, and veterinarians; schools and universities; communities of faith; community, professional, and philanthropic organizations; nonprofit and voluntary organizations; business, labor, and industry; the CDC Foundation and other foundations; and international health organizations (www.cdc.gov, n.d.).
There are still several specific organizations that the CDC works with, those agencies can be found on the CDC website at www.cdc.gov.
Funding and Budget for the Center for Disease Control and Prevention
When the CDC was first created, it operated on a budget of ten million dollars with fewer than 400 employees. Today the CDC has an operating budget of 15 billion dollars and it employs over 15,000 people (www.cdc.gov, n.d.). According to the CDC web site, "CDC is an Operating Division of the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). CDC receives its annual funding as a part of the DHHS budget" (www.cdc.gov, n.d.).
The purpose of federal, state and local health agencies are similar. All of the agencies strive to increase the public's knowledge of health care and disease prevention. The CDC or another federal health agency provides most of all health care information that is disseminated on the state and local level. For example, a search of the Texas Department of Health (TDH) website reveals numerous health care concerns that can be found on both the CDC website and in the Healthy People 2010 campaign. According to the TCH website, national statistics for health care issues such as HIV/AIDS is provided by the CDC and other health care entities that research and monitor the conclusions of the CDC (www.dshs.state.tx.us, 2006). One difference between national, state, local health care agencies is in the services that they provide to the public. For example when a person applies for Medicare, that person applies at a local Health and Human Services office. While Medicaid is a described as a joint effort between state and federal agencies, there is no federal agency that grants Medicaid eligibility (www.hhsc.state.tx.us, 2006). Funding and policies for Medicaid are regulated by both state and federal agencies, however Medicaid eligibility is determined on the local level.
The CDC plays a vital role in health care prevention for the American public. Everywhere you look on the Internet, there is some website singing the praises of disease prevention. "Polio, a crippling nerve degenerating viral infection, has been virtually eliminated from the United States because of an organized comprehensive prevention program" (www.immunization-and-vaccinations.com, n.d.). Disease prevention also benefits animals, "Early detection of disease provides the best opportunity for successful therapy" (www.heekinanimalhospital.com, 2004). Disease prevention is the focus of modern medicine. The federal institution leading the way for preventative medicine and community education is the CDC.
CDC WONDER. 2006. Retrieved on July 3, 2006 from http://wonder.cdc.gov/
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. n.d. Retrieved on July 3, 2006 from www.cdc.gov
Heekin Animal Hospital. 2004. Retrieved on July 3, 2006 from www.heekinanimalhospital.com
Immunization & Vaccination: Cost-Effective Disease Prevention. 2006. Retrieved on July 3, 2006 from www.immunization-and-vaccinations.com
National Prevention Information Network. n.d. Retrieved on July 3, 2006 from www.cdcnpin.gov
Texas Department of State Health Services. 2006. Retrieved July 3, 2006 from www.dshs.state.tx.us
Texas Health and Human Services Commission. 2006. Retrieved on July 3, 2006 from www.hhsc.state.tx.us
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