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Liposuction

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Autor:  anton  19 July 2011
Tags:  Liposuction
Words: 2825   |   Pages: 12
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Is the shape of your body dissatisfying to? What is the perfect body? Do you have one? By society’s standards is there one? Who would not love to have the perfect body?

Liposuction is on of the most popular type of cosmetic surgery procedure done in the United States. This procedure allows a surgeon to “sculpt” the human body to the client’s desire. Are you a good candidate for this procedure? What are the costs and risks one would be taking?

In the mid-1970’s there were many European surgeons that were trying to discover a way to remove localized fat deposits through incisions. The techniques surgeons were using were not getting enough good results and were causing bleeding, prolonged wound drainage, and sub-optimal healing.

Dr. Giorgio Fischer of Rome was the first surgeon to make an instrument that removed fat by suction and was the first to perform the liposuction surgery. “Fischer wanted to improve the techniques so he developed an instrument for severing tissue connections persisting between the skin and underlying muscle following tunneling with the blunt suction cannula.” (Maclean’s, Oct. 9, 1989). Fischer’s results began to fail due to the overlying skin of the suctioned area not shrinking satisfactorily after the surgery. Dr. Yves-Gerard Ilouz, a French gynecologist, realized the problems were occurring from the fat being removed almost totally from the treated area creating a large area for body fluids to fill. Dr. Ilouz simply modified the suction abortion machine to create liposuction. He then introduced the concept of fat reinjection and is considered the “father of liposuction surgery,” which he developed in Paris in 1977. The technique is very straightforward: suction unwanted fat from one part of the body, treat that fat with a small amount of insulin, and reinject the fat in to any depressed skin area of the body.

Procedure

Liposuction is performed by inserting a special thin, hollow tube instrument called a cannula. The cannula is inserted beneath the skin through a tiny incision that is made in a natural crease or fold in the skin then the cannula is attached to an aspirator (suction devise). The surgeon moves the tub in a back-and-forth motion through the fat, crating “tunnels” in the fat. Excess fat is sucked through the tube and into a container – similar to the way a vacuum cleaner works. After the desired amount if fat is removed, the surgeon tunnels through the remaining fat in a criss – cross manner in order to create an even contour. Fat that was once dense and thick becomes like a honeycomb or sponge with many air pockets. After the surgery is finished, tight bandages are wrapped around the affected area which compresses the fat and collapses the tunnels. The fat cells heal this way and retain the compressed shape.

The liposuction cannulas used during surgery come in various shapes and sizes. The cannulas are connected to a hollow tube to a powerful vacuum pump that supplies the suction required to remove the fat. The tube that is connected to the cannula to collect the fat is transparent so the surgeon can visualize material being suctioned from the treated area.

Body Fat Being a Factor

The body fat on a person can be very important in the success of a patient of liposuction. It all depends on the way the fat is naturally distributed over the patient’s body. The amount of body fat is influenced by diet and exercise but it also can be hereditary. According to Saul Asken, M.D., “If a person inherits large thighs or buttocks due to bone structure, liposuction is not the answer. However, if oversize thighs result from fat accumulations, it could help.” (Consumers Digest, Jan.-Feb. 1991).

Fat tissue is needed for energy, insulation and affects the water balance and usually represents about 20% of total body weight. When a person is born the fat cells in the body are a certain amount. When a person grows the fat cells do not increase, but the cells can expand if a person does not diet and exercise properly. Therefore, when liposuction is performed the fat cells will not reappear, but can expand to the result of obesity.

Obesity is usually defined as being 20% over the ideal body weight. Liposuction is not an alternative to exercise or diet and it is not a cure for being overweight. The procedure was designed to remove small amounts of fat from localized areas and should not be taken advantage of.

The safest amount of fat to remove is about three or four pounds, or fifteen hundred to two thousand cubic centimeters. Although there is a limit to remove no more than seven and a half pounds safely in any single procedure. McCurdy says, “This fat is considerably lighter than the solution that is administered intravenously during the surgery to replace body fluids that leak into the surgical site during the early postoperative period.” (Sculpturing Your Body: Diet, Exercise, and Liposuction). Due to this the patient will probably experience some weight gain of several pounds the first couple of days after surgery because of the fluid replacement. The kidneys will get rid of the excess fluid and the body weight soon returns to normal. Most patients with small to moderate fat bulges lose only a couple of pounds but may drop two to three clothing sizes.

Liposuction can improve the contours of the body, but the procedure is limited by the natural body shape and bone structure.

Body Sculpturing by Liposuction vs. Diet and Exercise

Shaping the body with liposuction is much different from the results of diet and exercise in two important ways. According to John McCudy M.D., “The first difference relates to the fate of the fat cells. When fat is lost by creating a caloric deficit (diet and exercise), fat cells lose some of their fat s stores, becoming smaller. The number of fat cells throughout the body, however, remains constant as the smaller fat cells remain alive. In fact, these depleted fat cells send messages to the brain indicating their depleted state, stimulating hunger, and when caloric surplus occurs, these fat cells are actually more efficient in extracting nutrients from the bloodstream and converting them to fat for storage.” (Sculpturing Your Body: Diet, Exercise, and Liposuction).

In comparing the two, the fat cells in liposuction are permanently removed from the area and in diet and exercise the fat cells are just reduced to a smaller size. Therefore, liposuction would bring the easiest and fastest results. After Liposuction is performed the patient should exercise regularly, so that the fat cells do not grow.

Again, McCurdy states, “The second important difference between body sculpturing by liposuction, diet and exercise is that using liposuction fat is specifically removed from the targeted areas. In contrast, the body responds to the caloric deficit created by diet and exercise in a genetically determined pattern, there being no way of specifically inducing fat to be preferentially mobilized from bothersome bulges.” Sculpturing Your Body: Diet, Exercise, and Liposuction).

Some ideal examples for liposuction are people under the age of 45 who have one or two isolated areas of “resistant” fat but are of normal weight for their body type, women with resilient skin and very little cellulite and women having large thighs and are constantly dieting and exercising the particular area and getting little results. Even men with “spare tires” around the middle of their waist can get relief. Although it is hard to completely eliminate the rolls of fat in spite of having weight loss Liposuction can get rid of the troublesome fat that refuses to go away.

Preparation

One of the most important factors in liposuction is making sure to find a surgeon with experience and a good esthetic sense. If not, the results can be very unrewarding. It can lead to uneven indentation of the skin and if the surgeon does not replace the lost fluids it can even lead to death. Although death is rare, there have been five deaths reported from such complications as excessive amounts of fluid and local anesthesia, excessive fat removal, multiple procedures, poor health, fluid loss and blood clots.

During the initial consultation, a brief description of the basic principle of liposuction should be discussed:

1. “The final postoperative result may not be apparent for three to six months.

2. Liposuction surgery is a contouring procedure and not an operation specifically

designed to weight reduction.

3. “cellulite”, if present preoperatively, will probably exhibit little change

following surgery.

4. Secondary “touch-up” procedures are occasionally necessary to achieve the best results. In this regard, it is preferable to underestimate the amount of fat to be removed rather than risk creating a contour deformity by removing

too much fat at the initial operation.

Strict adherence to the postoperative regimen is important I achieving an optimal result.” (Vogue, Oct. 1989)

After the interview with the surgeon, the candidate is either accepted or discouraged from the liposuction procedure. If the candidate is accepted for surgery, medical photographs are taken. The photographs provide a detailed record of the patient’s appearance before the procedure. The pictures are also helpful, after the surgery to show the patient the progress that is being mode. The location and extent of the scars that result from the procedure should be carefully discussed so the patient does not have any surprises.

The operation itself, depending on how much will be suctioned; will take on the average of about one to two hours.

Immediately following the surgery, compression garments (or tight bandages) are placed on the affected area. This compresses the fat and collapses the tunnels. The garments provide smooth, even pressure over the healing area and retain the compressed shape. The patients are supposed to wear the garments for three to six weeks.

The recovery from the anesthesia is that the patient is discharged home with an analgesic and is to stay in bed until the next morning. If the patient has had a larger amount of fat removed, the patient might experience some dizziness for several days after the operation. The patient will also be swollen for about two weeks then will go through a massage and exercise therapy to help the healing.

Anesthesia is the administration of a drug, so that loss of sensation in a part of the body or the entire body occurs. This is given to the patient, so they will feel little or no pain and it also protects vital functions during the procedure.

Anesthesia is divided into two major classes; local and general anesthesia.

Local cause’s loss of sensation to a particular part of the body.” the anesthetics used in local anesthesia block perception of pain by interfering with the activity of nerve fibers, which conduct pain impulses to the brain.” (U.S. New and World Report, May, 1989) the drugs are injected into the tissues with a hypodermic needle.

In general anesthesia the patient is completely unconscious, so that no pain is felt. “Depression of cardiovascular and pulmonary function also occurs; these functions must be carefully monitored and supported during the operation.” (U.S. New and World Report, May, 1989). General anesthesia is made up of gases that are administered through a mask or tube. If the patient is getting a small area operated on, local is more commonly used while general is used when a larger area is needed.

Risks are that fat or blood clots can travel through the body and lodge in the brain or lungs. When this happens, the result is a stroke. Nerves can be bruised and will cause a numbness of the area. When too much skin is removed it can produce irregularity to the skin’s appearance. Blood or serum may accumulate under the skin. The doctor can prevent this by removing it after the procedure is completed. Properly applying tight bandages can also help to prevent this complication. As fat is removed, so is fluid from the blood stream. This can be very dangerous and lead to shock. It is important that the fluids are replaced during and after the surgery.

After liposuction skin may wrinkle, become wavy, or drape over the area where the fat has been removed. This usually happens to people over 40 because the skin has lost the elasticity not allowing it to stretch back to the normal shape. Dents and depressions in the skin are cause by uneven removal of fat. To prevent this surgeons now use smaller cannulas to make smaller tunnels, but more of them.

The greatest danger of all is from its conceptual ease, which allows untrained practitioners to do the procedure. The patient will get the best results when both physician and patient take the operation very seriously.

Cost like all plastic surgery can be very high. The fees of the surgery depend on the extent of the procedure and the individual problem.

Area…………………..Cost

Hips…………………..$1,000-$5,000

Thighs………………...$1,600-$5,000

Buttocks……………...$1,500-$4,500

Abdomen.........................$2,000-$7,500

Facial……………...........$2,000-$4,500

Arms……………………$1,500-$5,000

Male Breast Reduction....$3,000-$5,000

The estimated costs above are the typical fees and do not include the fee of the anesthesiologist if needed.

In conclusion liposuction is a personal choice that people will make. There are many factors involved in the decision but society should not be one of them. The procedure is a form of safe plastic surgery if you have a problem area that needs to be corrected. Anyone is a good candidate for this procedure as long as the person is likely to be happy with the results and is in good health and has realistic expectations. The cost scares some but there are ways to help the patient out. Just like a car, Liposuction can just be financed and paid for later. If the patient does their research and chooses a certified board surgeon then there should not be any foreseeable problems. I personally would not choose to do this, because of the cost and I still do not like the risks involved even though they are minimal. Anytime you have a surgery there is always some type of risk.

References

Findlay, Steven., (May 1, 1989). Buying the Perfect Body. U.S. News and World Report, volume # 106, page #68. March 18, 2008, http://www.highbeam.com.

Kaplan, Janice., (January, 1988). Free of Fat: The New Body Surgery. Vogue, volume # 178, page #206. March 18, 2008,.

McCurdy, John. (1987). Sculpting Your Body: Diet, Exercise, and Liposuction Hollywood, Florida: Frederick Fell Publishers, Inc.

Schein,Jeffery (Jan.-Feb. 1991). The Truth about Liposuction. Consumer’s Digest, volume # 130, page #71. March 18, 2008,

The Truth About Liposuction Surgery What Every Patient Should Know Before Having A Liposuction Procedure. March 18, 2008, PRNewsNow http://www.prnewsnow.com/Public_Release/News_And_Talk_Shows/55251.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liposuction



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