Philosophy / Lessons Of Plato'S Republic
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Autor: anton 14 November 2010
Words: 1675 | Pages: 7
PlatoÐ²Ð‚â„¢s Republic aims to teach us that justice, in itself, is worthwhile, and that it is better to be just than unjust. It is better to be just than unjust for the just person avoids a life of misery, and the just person lives a happy life. It also goes so far as to teach the value of moderation and self-control to citizens of democracy and democracy itself.
In trying to create the argument of why it is better to be just than unjust, Plato first creates an analogy of the state/city to individuals. In the state, there exist different roles or classes. The city contains four virtues which are dispersed amongst the different classes in society. The four virtues consist of wisdom, courage, temperance/moderation, and justice (pg. 94-109) Temperance, or moderation, and justice are universally dispersed amongst everyone in the city; however, courage and wisdom are granted to a select few, particularly the Guardians (pg. 88-96). It is emphasized in Book IV that there are roles in society, and analogous to this, is the individual which also possesses specific roles, or parts. As there are different classes in society that play a specific role, there are different parts in an individual, specifically three, that have a particular purpose: spirit, appetite, and reason (pg. 88-110). Appetite corresponds to the desires, the wants of the individual. Clashing with this is reason and logic that tries to tame these urges. The balance between these two is defined by spirit, which is the character of the individual (pg. 101-109). For a just society, the guardians must be dominant, and as it is with an individual, for it to be just, reason must be dominant over the other parts. A correct balance must be maintained to be just, which leads to the ultimate conclusion of what justice is: the correct balance between desire and reason, and maintaining a proper role.
The first argument for why it is better to be just than unjust is presented through the horrible life that is lived by a tyrant, who is essentially an unjust person. The tyrannical man is ruled by his desires (pg. 202-207). For justice to be prevalent, the personÐ²Ð‚â„¢s soul must have the correct balance/order of their desires and reason. The tyrannical man lacks this balance. Tyrants are ignorant of their reason, and are drawn to lawless desires. These desires draw men toward acts that are vile, and seen as totally reprehensible and Ð²Ð‚Ñšhe is drawn into a perfectly lawless lifeÐ²Ð‚Ñœ (pg. 203). The personÐ²Ð‚â„¢s soul lacks the correct character and balance, and lives an awful life. This life is described through Socrates where the man experiences utter chaos, and a constant escalation of awful events for he will do anything to continue to feed his desires. Plato writes that after the tyrant is consumed by desires Ð²Ð‚Ñšthen comes debt and the cutting down of his propertyÐ²Ð‚Ñœ and Ð²Ð‚Ñšwhen he has nothing left, must not his desires, crowding in the nest like young ravens, be crying aloud for food; and he, goaded on by them, and especially by love himself, who is in a manner the captain of them, is in a frenzyÐ²Ð‚Ñœ (pg. 204). This shows that the tyrant, who is unjust, is absolutely miserable and constantly taunted by his lawless desires. This creates the second argument where, living an unjust life is worse-off than a just one.
Happiness is an argument that shows it is better to be just than unjust that is presented deals with a just city being a happy city. With a just city being analogous to a just individual, if a just city is a happy city, then a just individual is a happy individual. A just city is happy because it is unified and harmonious (pg. 89). In a just city there exists a Ð²Ð‚Ñšcommon wealthÐ²Ð‚Ñœ where a lack of Ð²Ð‚ÑšprivateÐ²Ð‚Ñœ feelings creates a lack of selfishness (pg. 88-92). Selfishness, defining what belongs to who, can create a form of separation within the city. This is why the Guardians lack any material possessions and they share almost all everything including their wives (pg. 88-92). As the Guardians must be unselfish to create a happy and just city, reason must dominate over desires. It is even stated that Ð²Ð‚ÑšGuardians may be the happiest of menÐ²Ð‚Ñœ (pg. 88). This could show how happiness may coincide with justice. The Guardian, which represents reason, exists by controlling his desires, and in turn is the happiest individual. One example of how unhappiness may spawn from excessive desires and wants would be with buyerÐ²Ð‚â„¢s remorse. A person who is ruled by desires lives an unjust and unhappy life. This can stand true when looking at an example such as buyerÐ²Ð‚â„¢s remorse. It is generally a known fact that buyerÐ²Ð‚â„¢s remorse is a deep regret and sadness felt from a particular purchase. Usually the purchase entails buying something the person does not need, but something they wanted. These gluttonous feelings, this desire to purchase an item that was not absolutely necessary, leads to this remorse. It is doubtful then that a person feeling remorse is a happy one. A person constantly defined by their strong desires and lack of reason, will live a life less happy than one who is not. A happy life is obviously a life that is sought after more so than an unhappy life, and if being just entails happiness, then being just is preferable over being unjust.
Earlier in Book II, Glaucon creates the argument that it is better to be unjust than just, and that the tyrant who is unjust reaps the rewards, while the just person receives scorn. One other argument presented that contradicts the benefits of being just involves the ring of Gyges (pg. 41-42) The story goes that Gyges comes into possession of a ring that allows him to become invisible. As he is invisible, he commits unjust acts. The ring presents a story where an individual will only appear to be just for appearanceÐ²Ð‚â„¢s sake, but still be unjust if they can get away with it. This shows the dilemma that a person who only acts just, can accept the rewards of both sides. They can be just and appear so to others, but also reap the added benefits of actually being unjust (pg. 41-43). In this argument, it seems logical that a person could possibly be better off being unjust; however, simply going beyond the material benefits, there are other negatives involved. Although one may gain material possessions, there is the inherent risk of becoming unhappy, for being just coincides with being happy. Also, the individual may succumb to the fate of the tyrant, who gives into his lawless desires.
With it being better to be just than unjust, this value of justice can try to teach citizens of a democracy the importance of moderation and self-control. The arguments as to why it is better to be just than unjust themselves cannot be applied directly, and so easily, to policy; instead, they must be interpreted as to teaching us the importance of moderation and self-control. Moderation and self-control is inherent in being just, because there must be moderation and self-control of reasons over desire.
Moderation and self-control is important, whether it applies to individuals or societies. Excessive wants and needs can lead to over-exertion of oneÐ²Ð‚â„¢s own power. Going back to the example of Thucydides, which states that nations will Ð²Ð‚Ñšrule where they canÐ²Ð‚Ñœ is a perfect example where moderation and self-control is necessary (Thucydides, pg. 351). It is obvious that a nation with no self-control and moderation would constantly seek to conquer other territories, and it is highly unlikely that these territories would simply submit, and instead, opposition is almost guaranteed. This opposition will lead to war and endanger the democracy and its citizens. Desires may not come in simply seeking to conquer other nations, instead, it may come in the form of constantly desiring wealth and dominance. A nation that desires wealth will expel all its natural resources, such as oil and coal, and in turn, may eventually seek to acquire it from other nations.
Examining moderation and self-control on the individual level equates in a different way. In a Democracy, moderation and self-control can be used on how individuals will exert themselves on other individuals. With the accumulation of wealth in a free-market society, individuals may constantly seek to accumulate greater amounts of wealth. This is apparent in nations where a major percentage of the wealth is owned by a minute percentage of the population. Also, there are corporations that are constantly seeking to expand their markets and increase their power, without ever considering when enough is enough. Other areas of moderation and self-control are necessary would be in politics. Moderation is apparent when it comes to legislators and presidents, where they are only allowed to operate for a fixed amount of time. But this is a small case where moderation exists. Moderation and self-control may be necessary in areas pertaining to state intervention or state control. Where can the state intervene and how far does the stateÐ²Ð‚â„¢s power reach?
Also, the sheer value of democracy being a just democracy cannot be overlooked. The same arguments as to why it is better to be just than unjust apply to why a democracy should be just in the first place. A just democracy is one that regulates its desires with reason. A just democracy will avoid the fate of a tyranny, spiraling out of control, and instead be happier, healthy, and well off. Another potential value being just could be teaching to the citizens of a democracy might be live as the Guardians live.
The Guardians live in a just society by possessing no material possessions, and sharing everything they have, containing no laws, possessing no wealth and still maintaining a dominant power. The democracy probably does not go so far as to say its citizens must live a just life by giving up material possessions, but the standard is set as to how a just society must function.
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