Psychology / Various Parenting Methods
Various Parenting MethodsThis essay Various Parenting Methods is available for you on Essays24.com! Search Term Papers, College Essay Examples and Free Essays on Essays24.com - full papers database.
Autor: anton 21 November 2010
Words: 1147 | Pages: 5
Examination Two: Paper II
Parenting styles incorporates two important components: parent responsiveness and parental demandingness. The first component, parent responsiveness refers to Ð²Ð‚Ñšthe extent to which parents intentionally foster, individuality, self-regulation, and self-assertion by being attuned, supportive, and acquiescent to childrenÐ²Ð‚â„¢s special needs and demandsÐ²Ð‚Ñœ (Baumrind, 1991, p.62). Parental demandingness refers to Ð²Ð‚Ñš the claims parents make on children to become integrated into the family whole, by their maturity demands, supervision, disciplinary efforts, and willingness to confront the child who disobeysÐ²Ð‚Ñœ (Baumrind, 1991, pp.61-62). Thus, parenting styles are categorized according to the two components outlined in three basic parenting styles: authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative.
Regardless of having absolutely no prior experience in childrearing, my parenting style of choice is authoritative method. Authoritative parenting is based on high parental demands on obedience, maturity, and other clear expectations. However, despite such expectations of authoritative parenting, they have a tendency to be flexible if the child Ð²Ð‚Ñšfalls shortÐ²Ð‚Ñœ. The flexibility of authoritative parenting is significant because parents listen to their child, which catalyzes discussion. Parent to child discussions are very important because they listen to the childÐ²Ð‚â„¢s complaint and concerns. The parents recognize that the child has a voice and thus allows to some extent freedom to cultivate their childÐ²Ð‚â„¢s individualism and self-esteem. On the other hand, authoritarians expect their child to accept their word is law without question, which does not allow their child any choice or options. Permissive parents are too lenient and may not be as involved with the child as they should be. Overall, authoritative parenting is the best method that provides a balance for child in emotional responsiveness, external conformity, and acknowledges child autonomy.
Child maltreatment occurs frequently, many cases go unreported, and many of the times parents are often the offenders. Child maltreatment is a general term used to describe all forms of child abuse: physical, emotional, or sexual well-being. Physical abuse is a non-accidental injury from a caregiver to child that often involves shaking, punching, biting, kicking, beating, slapping or even burning. Emotional abuse involves verbal harassment of a child by belittling, threatening, or intimidating a child. Sexual abuse is involvement of dependent and immature child. A child or adolescent are unable to fully comprehend and are unable to give knowledgeable consent. This particular abuse includes fondling, touching, and penetration. Neglect also is a form of child abuse where the caregiver fails to meet the basic emotional and physical needs of a child. The typical forms of neglect concern: proper housing, medical care, clothing, food, and education.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services defines physical child abuse as "any non-accidental physical injury to the child, and can include striking, kicking, burning, or biting the child, or any action that results in a physical impairment of the child." Striking which is considered a synonym of spanking is not a form of abuse because it does not result in child physical impairment. According to Merriam-Webster, impairment is defined as Ð²Ð‚Ñšto damage or make worse by or as if by diminishing in some material respect.Ð²Ð‚Ñœ For instance, a simple Ð²Ð‚Ñštwo-swat spankingÐ²Ð‚Ñœ in a covered bottom or a slap on the wrist does not constitute as abuse because it does not inflict any health impairments on a child. In addition, such spanking or striking should also not be considered as abuse because it should be only done out of love. Spanking should never serve as an outlet for parental release of anger that can lead to extremities like abuse.
Spanking should only be used in moderation and does have risks because it has several side effects. Child who is frequently spanked may feel insecure, they may feel that spanking is a way to solve problems, and that violence is acceptable. Therefore, I must reemphasize in order to use spanking parents must consider the following: explain to the child their for reason for such punishment (as a authoritative parent would do), spanking should not be an outlet for parent frustration it should be done out of love, and should never be extreme by endangering a childÐ²Ð‚â„¢s health (includes using inhumane objects to strike like a bat).
Parents who decided to spank also need to consider the childÐ²Ð‚â„¢s age and other disciplinary options. For instance, children of 18 months and under should not be spanked because their state of development does not allow them to understand. Parents most commonly tend to spank of children of 2 to 6 years who have the capacity to correlate punishment with act. In addition to age of the child, parent should use other disciplinary methods before resorting to spanking. Its is recommend that parents should try to reason with the child first, and if the tactic does not work then the child should receive some sort of non-corporal punishment like a time-out. If the non-corporal punishment fails due to continued defiance by the child, then parent should use a nonabusive corporal punishment like a two-swat spank.
Punishment is not a one size fits all because every child is different. If a child has a sweet temperament and is able to reason with, then spanking is an ineffective form of punishment. However, some children are disobedient and do not listen to the adultÐ²Ð‚â„¢s instruction no matter how nicely the adults asks. By eliminating spanking (because it is considered child abuse), actually harms the children because it allows a child to continue disobey. Allowing a child to continually disobey is actually neglect which is a form of child abuse, because going through childhood undisciplined is not in the best interests of any child.
In the case of Martha and her son Johnny, she should not even consider using spanking as a punishment for two reasons. First of all, it is safe to assume that she has never used spanking as a punishment. Secondly, given JohnnyÐ²Ð‚â„¢s age, he is too old for spanking and there are other effective methods for punishment. Based on operant conditioning, my suggestion for Martha is to use negative punishment. By taking away JohnnyÐ²Ð‚â„¢ s playstation, she takes something that is favorable to Johnny by discouraging the unfavorable behavior. In addition, to further ensure that bad behavior is not done, Martha should not allow any friends to come over as well, especially during the weekends.
My prior opinion about spanking not being a form of child abuse is somewhat irrelevant because Johnny apparently has never been spanked before. In addition, Johnny is 7 years old and he is able to benefit from other punishments, because he is at an age where is able to understand better in comparison to a 3 year old. Johnny should be punished through negative punishment by taking away his playstation. Martha should also explain to him why his is getting punished, so that Johnny learns the consequences of their actions. After all, punishment is not a one size fits all because every child is unique.
Get Better Grades Today
Join Essays24.com and get instant access to over 60,000+ Papers and Essays