Social Issues / The Abolition Of Slavery In Brazil
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Autor: anton 24 April 2011
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The Abolition of Slavery in Brazil, 13 May 1888
Next year sees the 120th anniversary of the abolition of slavery in Brazil. Some contemporary writers saw the period as an horrific maltreatment of our fellow human beings while others saw through this and viewed the patriarchal and familial advantages that society, especially slaves received. Whichever way one sees it, the period before its abolition saw a huge boost in BrazilÐ²Ð‚â„¢s economy, mainly down to its vast manpower Ð²Ð‚â€œ 37% of all African slaves traded Ð²Ð‚â€œ a massive 3 million men, women and children.
Brazil is famous for its three main exports Ð²Ð‚â€œ sugar, gold and coffee and the discovery, production and distribution of these materials was mainly down to African slaves. After the Portuguese developed the technology to extract sugar from sugarcane, the slaves were the ones who worked on the fields and essentially boosted the economy on their own. When the sugar economy levelled out, the slaves were the ones to extract the gold from mountainous, largely inhospitable areas. When the strongest of the three economies was discovered, coffee, the efficiency of the slaves saw coffee take 63% of the nationÐ²Ð‚â„¢s economy. From these facts, it is not easy to say that slave labour was wholly detrimental.
However, several factors and events led to the eventual abolition of slavery. In 1850, foreign slave trade was outlawed while by 1871 all sons of slaves were released and in 1885 all slaves over 60 were released. By the mid 19th Century, slavery had become more of a social condition than a racial one. Newly constructed emancipation groups were resistant to the fact that some slaves, through eugenic selection, were whiter than their patriarchs. A contemporary writer writes
Ð²Ð‚ÑšThe circumstance that particularly struck me in Brazil was, the interminable period to which the offspring of a slave is doomed to bondage, from generation to generation. It is a taint of the blood, which no length of time, no change of relationship, no alteration of colour, can obliterate.Ð²Ð‚Ñœ
The Paraguayan War was another major factor that contributed to the abolition as slaves enlisted in the services in return for their freedom.
There was also pressure from countries outside South America that contributed to the end of slavery. The Clapham Sect, an evangelical group from London tried to convince the United Kingdom government to use their huge political influence to stop slavery. The UKÐ²Ð‚â„¢s economy would grow as result, they claimed, since the slave-led Brazilian sugar trade was out pricing the UKÐ²Ð‚â„¢s sugar trade in the Caribbean.
While there were those who opposed slavery, there were some who protested that the Brazilian economy could not withstand the abolition. Padre PompÐ“Ð„os argued that since agriculture was the chief source of the economy and is mostly effected by slaves, without them there is no agriculture and without agriculture there is no commerce. He believed it could Ð²Ð‚?destroyÐ²Ð‚Â¦ the basis of our great social status.Ð²Ð‚â„¢ On the other hand, there were celebrated figures such as the financial backer,
AndrÐ“Â© RebouÐ“Â§as, the mulatto lawyer Luiz Gama and the black journalist JosÐ“Â© do PatrocÐ“Ânio who made up the figureheads of the Abolitionist Confederation. After the law was passed, they in particular fought for the establishment of compulsory education, the separation of the Church and State and a readjustment program for ex-slaves. They also succeeded in finding ex-slaves new jobs and recruited Italian workers as replacements for the black slaves.
Yet, the strongest force that supported the abolition of slavery was the monarchy. They, according to Gilberto Freyre Ð²Ð‚?actedÐ²Ð‚Â¦ in defense of law, of justice, of morality against paternalistic abuses of powerÐ²Ð‚â„¢. Since the rich autocrats who owned slaves were looking to be recognised with titles, such as marquises and dukes, they were willing to cooperate with the Royal Family. However, many rich nobles did not believe the threat from Empire to abolish slavery since the predicted effects were well known and well documented in the press. So, when Princess Isabel passed Law 3353 in 1888, the monarchy began to feel the pressure of the influential nobles who, feeling that the abolition had created too much freedom in Brazil staged a military coup on 15th November 1889, just over a year after the passing of Law 3353. Some might say that the overthrow of the monarchy was down to the surprisingly long and expensive Paraguayan War. However, it can be no consequence that a republic was born only a year after slavery was abolished.
Former slaves discovered a deep feeling of insecurity after the downfall of the monarchy. Since Brazil had always been a paternalistic culture (an Emperor and an autocrat of a patriarchal house to protect them), it even led to some men and women becoming nostalgic of their former Ð²Ð‚?big housesÐ²Ð‚â„¢, as they were known, and were desperate for the patriarchal assistance they once had in abundance. Yet, the popular president Getulio Vargas finally understood the sociological and psychological situation of the former slaves and gave a large part of the Brazilian labour population protection against exploitation from commercial and industrial firms.
If we look at Brazilian culture today, we think of opportunities, tourism and a business hub for companies around the globe. However, this is an image we have of the metropolises Ð²Ð‚â€œ Rio de Janeiro and SÐ“Ðˆo Paulo. Still in some parts of the vast country exists slavery. In parts of the Amazon rainforest, men are paid nothing, receive one meal a day and have not toilet facilities to clear the jungle with machetes. The products of this slavery? Hardwood and pig iron that are imported to America. The anti-slavery officials in Brasilia put the number of modern slaves at 50,000 Ð²Ð‚â€œ 50,000 too many in my opinion.
Nonetheless, Brazil is a strong country that has not fallen to corruption as much as some of her neighbours have. However, let us hope that by the 120th anniversary next year we can say that all slavery has been abolished once and for all.
Ð²Ð‚Ñž THE EXTINCTION OF SLAVERY IN BRAZI, FROM A PRACTICAL POINT OF VIEW, Anthropological Review, 6 (1868) p.56
Ð²Ð‚Ñž ALDEN, DAURIL, Ð²Ð‚ÑšThe Abolition of Slavery in BrazilÐ²Ð‚Ñœ, by Robert Brent Toplin (Book Review), Journal of Social History, 7:3 (1974:Spring) p.355
Ð²Ð‚Ñž SLAVERY IN BRAZIL. , Imperial Magazine: and, monthly record of religious, philosophical, historical, biographical, topographical, and general knowledge; embracing literature, science & art, 12:141 (1830:Sept.) p.795
Ð²Ð‚Ñž History of slavery. (2007, March 5). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 10:52, March 6, 2007, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_slavery&oldid=112923392
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