Social Issues / Role Of Technology, Effects On Etiquette
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Autor: anton 16 April 2011
Words: 1433 | Pages: 6
As of the end of 2004, it is estimated that 180 million Americans were wireless subscribers and had talked a total of 1.1 trillion minutes, up one third from the end of 2003 (Humphreys). These social trends are significant as the statistics show how prevalent the use of technology such as cell phones has become in modern day societies. Cell phones now come equipped with multiple functions, with one device replacing the functions formally performed by several. The convenience offered by cell phones has promoted their now ubiquitous usage. Cell phones now seem to be involved in every aspect of peopleÐ²Ð‚â„¢s daily lives as multitasking grows in popularity especially amongst the new generation of young adults. In light of these factors it is important to explore the role of cell phones in terms of the potential erosion of social norms and interpersonal communication skills that could possibly result in an increasing tendency of people to interact with their hand held devices instead of communicating with those around them.
A study conducted by Cook, Lesch, Lipscomb, and Totten focused on cell phone etiquette specifically among college students. Their findings were based on a survey designed to outline out what behaviour is considered appropriate and inappropriate as part of establishing the existence social norms regarding the use of cell phones amongst this segment of the population. Social norms are standards of expected Ð²Ð‚Ñšbehaviour maintained by a societyÐ²Ð‚Ñœ; though some are formal and have been written down specifying strict rules others are informal in that they are Ð²Ð‚Ñšgenerally understood but not precisely recordedÐ²Ð‚Ñœ (Schaefer 70). The researchers examined the perceived appropriateness of the use of cell phones, using a scale to determine the agreement, disagreement or ambivalence of participant opinion under specific circumstances; what was found to be completely inappropriate by the respondents was the use of cell phones when in the company of others, in the library or in the classroom (Cook).
Social norms dictate that there are there are unspoken yet generally understood rules about certain behaviours and they set limits and boundaries for what actions are tolerated by society and what is not considered to be appropriate. Cook found that there are contexts in which individuals have Ð²Ð‚Ñšexpectations of quietudeÐ²Ð‚Ñœ, circumstance under which most conversations would be considered rude, as they are disturbing to others. But such expectations appeared to apply to a lesser extent when in public domains such as while using public transportation or being in a store, where it seems that people have less hesitations about cell phone usage (Cook). This brings up the question of where it is socially acceptable to use cell phones.
These findings broach the issue of the boundaries between private and public space and where they overlap. A study done by Lee Humphreys pertains to the use of cell phones and public interactions. This study concentrates on how cell phones have changed social norms of interactions in public spaces (Humphreys). His research also attempts to prove the idea that Ð²Ð‚Ñštechnological advances play a role in reshaping nonmaterial culture with effects on culture and social interactionsÐ²Ð‚Ñœ (Schaefer 567). For example, instead visiting a friend face to face to see how they are doing, a phone call or text message is used. He suggests that cell phones are commonly used to avoid interactions with the public (Humphreys). This research goes to prove the notion that cell phones have caused personal relationships to become more distant and impersonal.
Along the lines of eroding social skills caused by the increasing dependence on cell phones, there have been incidents where observers encountered Ð²Ð‚Ñšfake callsÐ²Ð‚Ñœ- where students pretend to be using their phone in an attempt to avoid contact with others or to not appear lonely (Cook). Some sociologists argue that technology weakens social skills resulting in isolation when it is used to avoid human interaction. Another telling example is found when passenger behaviour in taxis is examined. A passenger is most likely to use a cellular device while in the alone in the backseat of the taxi in the evening, and the highest rate of usage is reported when a gender or racial difference between the driver and passenger exists (Bungum).
Although there is mounting evidence to prove that cell phones cause changes in the manner people interact, it is not unanimously agreed how they have such a profound impact on a skill that is not only seen as natural but also paramount to human ability to survive. To explain this phenomenon some sociologists argue that Ð²Ð‚Ñšmobile phones pit the priorities of the Ð²Ð‚?inÐ²Ð‚â„¢ group Ð²Ð‚â€œ those on the phone Ð²Ð‚â€œ against those in the Ð²Ð‚?outÐ²Ð‚â„¢ group, or people in close proximity to the talkersÐ²Ð‚Ñœ (Cook). Other sociologists who have argued that a personÐ²Ð‚â„¢s sense of community is generally Ð²Ð‚Ñšbound to a physical location and thought to be public, not privateÐ²Ð‚Ñœ also support this view. It is argued that technologies like computers and mobile phones Ð²Ð‚?destroyÐ²Ð‚â„¢ physical space, and thus community, by breaking down the distinction between what is public and what is private (Cook). Though Cook discovered circumstances under which it was found to be socially unacceptable to use cell phones, the survey respondents were uncertain about their use in certain public locations such as restaurants, where there is a blend of private and public space. These ambivalent attitudes are reflected in a Ð²Ð‚Ñšsurvey of owners indicat[ing] that 57% of restaurant guests were annoyed by cell phone use, an activity that tends to slow service timeÐ²Ð‚Ñœ (Humphreys). Mobile phone usage in public locations intrudes on social interactions as close surroundings result in forced eavesdropping and this can be a factor in annoying others and thus be perceived as rude.
Cell phone usage oftentimes seems to reflect poorly on the politeness of the users, as can be witnessed in the examples where observed users continuously used the text messaging function on their cell phone while eating with a friend. This is one way that cell phones act as a distraction. It also was found that cell phones have similar distractive qualities as television and Internet, in that studentsÐ²Ð‚â„¢ attention level to an activity decreased significantly after the use of a cell phone was introduced. In addition, the person on the cellular device is often recorded as avoiding eye contact with the person or persons they were associating with at the time, which is of significance as eye contact is usually the basis for effective conversations. In most observed cases the users blatantly ignored other individuals in the vicinity for the entire duration of the call (Humphreys).
However, the case of cell phones is not as clear cut so as to prove the hypothesis that all forms of technological innovation cause upheavals in the organization of a society, and that cell phones in particular are the main cause of the continuing loss of interpersonal communication skills. To challenge the previously discussed view on technology there are examples that prove technologyÐ²Ð‚â„¢s effectiveness in acting as a means of communication, allowing individuals to engage with a larger secondary network. The combination of urban expansion, globalization, and booming population rates, it is increasingly hard to remain in contact with family and friends. It has been found that people are increasingly using cell phones as a means of coordinating their activities and meetings (Schaefer 473). Cell phones can be seen as just another, more convenient, means of interaction that allows people to maintain their social ties.
The case of etiquette is not straightforward as the analysis leads to the conclusion that though there is some agreement among student cell phone users about the appropriateness of use under certain circumstances, a Ð²Ð‚Ñšrelatively rapid and universal adoption among young adults, at least, of codes of etiquette that govern cell phone behaviorÐ²Ð‚Ñœ does not yet exist contrary to CookÐ²Ð‚â„¢s theory. The social rules havenÐ²Ð‚â„¢t yet adjusted as Ð²Ð‚Ñšwe are only at the very beginning of an elaboration of the manners that are appropriateÐ²Ð‚Ñœ (Humphreys). Though the evidence about the effects cell phones have on daily interactions are is not conclusive, some of the trends seen are alarming. It seems that there is a trade off between the convenience offered by technology and the price paid in terms of the lost ability to communicate with each other in an effective and personal manner. Cell phones are a fairly new invention and its usage and effects have no been studied to a great extent yet, so in the near future it will be of particular interest and importance to see how the trends in usage change and evolve and how society will react by either accepting or denouncing new ways of interaction.
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