Social Issues / Social Issues
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Autor: anton 14 March 2011
Words: 973 | Pages: 4
Show the clear conceptual distinctions between Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination. Give an example of each.
The term prejudice was derived from the study of intergroup relations, which in popular discourse is associated mostly with negative attitudes about members of selected racial and ethic groups. An unfavorable judgment or opinion formed in advance or without knowledge or examination of the facts which leads to unsubstantiated prejudgment of an individual or group, favorable or unfavorable in character, tending to action in a consonant direction. The enmity that prejudice can cause and the discrimination to which it may lead on the part of a dominant population toward an ethnic group, gender, religious or linguistic minority have caused great human distress throughout history. Prejudice is like any prejudice, "I am better than they are, I live in a better neighborhood, I have obtained better education and I have a good job." Prejudice in any form, racial or social, carries a serious price, it lowers efficiency and increases fixed cost. Prejudice eradicates communications, originality, motivation these are just some attributes. Defined more precisely prejudice is to closely Allport, an antipathy based on faulty generalization. It may be felt or expressed. It may be directed toward a group as a whole or toward an individual because she or he is a member of that group. Prejudice has both an emotional and cognitive aspect. Stereotyping is an overgeneralization association with a racial or ethnic category that goes beyond existing evidence. For example, Irish American have been stereotyped as lazy drunkards, African Americans and Latinos as indolent, Italian Americans as criminals with Mafiaâ€ ties, Asian Americans as â€œtreacherous Orientalsâ€. A basic definition would be to reduce somebody to oversimplified category: to categorize individuals or groups according to an oversimplified standardized image or idea. Stereotypes are generalizations about a group of inhabitants whereby we attribute a defined set of individuality to this group. These classifications can be positive or negative. It is easier to generate stereotypes when there is a clearly evident and reliable attribute that can easily be recognized. This is why minorities, police and women are so effortlessly stereotyped. Individuals from stereotyped groups can find this very upsetting as they experience an apprehension of being treated unjustly. Sociological analysts of stereotyping tend to emphasize group pressures on individuals for conformity or rationalization, while psychological analysts tend to stress individual irrationality or personality defects. Much research on discrimination has focused on one type of motivation-prejudice. Robert Merton suggested that for some people discrimination is motivated not by their own prejudices of others in the dominant group. Discrimination involves action as well as one or more victims. A distinction between intentional and unintentional is useful for identifying different types of discrimination.
What factors contribute to the persistence of racism throughout the world? How is it maintained within a society or culture? In what way(s) is racism â€œfunctional and for whom?
There are many factors that contribute to the persistence of racism throughtout the world. Personally I think most racism comes from groups or individuals with power, money, and eminent social status. Society has always given incite on how things should be, not saying that society is justifying fairness and equality to all. Societyâ€™s idea of racism stem from past historical elements such as slavery the contribute to the nation outlook on racism. Racism displays the inside idea life conditions, accepted culture, and religious and educational institutions. Racism with basic causes in a structure that described the relationship between health and race, arguing that racism shapes other important social determinants of health outcomes, including economic resources and the availability and nature of health care. The individual acts of unfairness and interpersonal discrimination that grow out of racism represent its manifestations. They are previously imposed by a multitude of negative life proceedings whose relationship to racism is often masked. It is very likely that, at the point at which people encounter these individual forms of racism, other racist institutional and cultural forces already have infringed on their lives. Racism in culture or society refers to a shared identity based on such factors as common language, shared values and attitudes, and similarities in ideology. Racism and discrimination have direct impacts on health, as well as indirect impacts
mediated through various forms of social, political and economic inequity.
Social services tend to direct people of diverse racial and cultural backgrounds into a system that is designed for European Americans and serviced by workers from European American groups. Often the result is underutilization of available services by people who encounter racial, cultural, and linguistic barriers. Government services often mask symptoms of larger problems, such as racism, unemployment, illiteracy, and poverty. Injustice for rasicm often is created by economic policies and practices. Society "blames the victim" and focuses on adjusting the individual to existing societal conditions, without acknowledging the need for environmental and institutional change and effectiveness to response. As an African American woman my own functional definition of Racism with include the idea that pertains to White Supremacy which used as theory or concept to racism. This theory is loosely defined as "Racism (White Supremacy) is the local and global power system and dynamic, structured and maintained by persons who classify themselves as white, whether consciously or subconsciously determined, which consists of patterns of perception, logic, symbol formation, thought, speech, action and emotional response, as conducted simultaneously in all areas of people activity (economics, education, entertainment, labor, law, politics, religion, sex and war), for the ultimate purpose of white genetic survival and to prevent white genetic annihilation on planet Earth - a planet upon which the vast majority of people are classified as nonwhite (black, brown, red and yellow) by white skinned people, and all of the nonwhite people are genetically dominant (in terms of skin coloration) compared to the genetic recessive white skin people".
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