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Conducting A Job Analysis

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Category: Business

Autor: anton 08 March 2011

Words: 2654 | Pages: 11


ID #: 03765447






The chief executive officer deems it necessary for a job analysis exercise to be conducted on the various positions in the organisation.

Outline the various uses to which data from the job analysis can be put and discuss, in detail the steps you would take in accomplishing this task.

Job Analysis: Overview

Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a process where judgments are made about data collected on a job.

The Job; not the person An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is conducted of the Job, not the person. While Job Analysis data may be collected from incumbents through interviews or questionnaires, the product of the analysis is a description or specifications of the job, not a description of the person.

The following four steps are useful in performing a successful job analysis: -

1. Determining the organizational use of job content and other related data.

2. Learning about the structure, operations, and jobs of the organization.

3. Identify and select methods for collecting job content data and other related facts.

4. Schedule the necessary and logical work steps.

Step 1: Purpose of Job Analysis

The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the 'job relatedness' of employment procedures such as training, selection, compensation, and performance appraisal.

Determining Training Needs

Job Analysis can be used in training/"needs assessment" to identify or develop:

• training content

• assessment tests to measure effectiveness of training

• equipment to be used in delivering the training

• methods of training (i.e., small group, computer-based, video, classroom...)


Job Analysis can be used in compensation to identify or determine:

• skill levels

• compensatable job factors

• work environment (e.g., hazards; attention; physical effort)

• responsibilities (e.g., fiscal; supervisory)

• required level of education (indirectly related to salary level)

Selection Procedures

Job Analysis can be used in selection procedures to identify or develop:

• job duties that should be included in advertisements of vacant positions;

• appropriate salary level for the position to help determine what salary should be offered to a candidate;

• minimum requirements (education and/or experience) for screening applicants;

• interview questions;

• selection tests/instruments (e.g., written tests; oral tests; job simulations);

• applicant appraisal/evaluation forms;

• orientation materials for applicants/new hires

Performance Review

Job Analysis can be used in performance review to identify or develop:

• goals and objectives

• performance standards

• evaluation criteria

• length of probationary periods

• duties to be evaluated

Other Users And Uses Include

Job analysis can also be uses in:-

 Organisational Design and Staffing

 Safety and Health

 Hiring the Handicapped

 Affirmative action planning

Some products of job analyses include:

1. Job Description and Specification

Job descriptions describe the job and not the individual who fills the job. They are the result of job analysis within a given organization and are essential to the selection and evaluation of employees. Job advertisements or postings are based on the job description.

The character of the organization is the basis for the description of positions. Information about the organization might include

• Name of Company

• Main Product(s) and/or Service(s)

• Location

• Number of Employees

• Company Structure

• Names of Officers

• Hours of Work

Job description

Job description is a written statement that defines the duties, relationships and results expected of anyone in the job. It is an overall view of what is to be done in the job. Typically it includes is a written statement that defines the duties, relationships and results expected of anyone in the job. It is an overall view of what is to be done in the job. Typically it includes

• Job Title

• Date

• Title of immediate supervisor

Statement of the Purpose of the Job

• Primary Responsibilities

• List of Typical Duties and Responsibilities

• General Information related to the job

o training requirements

o tool use

o transportation

o Signature of the person who has prepared the job description

Job Specification

Job Specification is an analysis of the kind of person it takes to do the job, that is to say, it lists the qualifications. Normally, this would include is an analysis of the kind of person it takes to do the job, that is to say, it lists the qualifications. Typically this would include

• Degree of education

• Desirable amount of previous experience in similar work

• Specific Skills required

• Health Considerations

2. Controlling Labour Costs

What can be done with the Job Analysis to develop materials to aid you in undertaking actual steps to control and cut your labor costs? The first step is to review all the Job Analyses and review some of the questions that might arise from them. There are some questions that might be included in a Job Analysis that could provide data for cost saving decision making such as those that follow:

• What time do you start? - Does the time the job is scheduled coincide exactly with the time that the person is needed? If not rescheduling is possible to save labor hours.

• What work do you never have to do that you were told was needed? - This permits you to examine times that are allotted for tasks that the employee never has to do in the normal course of events. Revisions are then possible to save labor hours.

• What work that you do is also done by others? - Look at how many people are scheduled to do similar jobs. Examination may show that some of these are not needed, saving labor hours.

• Is the work you do beneficial to our business? - Evaluate if the segments of work performed by the employee are all essential to the successful operation of the business. If any aren't necessary, take steps to eliminate them, thus saving labor hours.

The second step is to look carefully at the caliber of the person needed to perform the actual job. It's possible that you are paying for a higher type employee than is needed for the job.

Step 2: Learning about the structure,

operations, and jobs of the organization.

There are three valuable information sources that are helpful in understanding organisation jobs prior to the job analysis. These include:

 Process charts- provides a detailed understanding of a job by analysing input and output flows for activities.

 Procedure manuals- shows step-by-step descriptions of job tasks.

 Organisational chart- an example of an organisational chart is shown on the following page.

Step 3: Identify and select methods for

collecting job content data


Choosing a job analysis method for development of any particular examination is not simple. It requires a great deal of professional judgment and analysis. The following provides a summary of the points that need to be considered in selecting a job analysis technique:

Step 1 The Required Level of Validity and Defensibility of the Exam

Step 2 The Development Time and Resources

Step 3 The Administrative Time and Resource Level of the Examination

Step 4 Preliminary Identification of Competencies

Step 5 Preliminary Examination Plan

Step 6 Select Job Analysis Techniques

What Aspects of a Job Are Analyzed?

Job Analysis should collect information on the following areas:

• Duties and Tasks The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties. Information to be collected about these items may include: frequency, duration, effort, skill, complexity, equipment, standards, etc.

• Environment This may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job. The work environment may include unpleasant conditions such as offensive odors and temperature extremes. There may also be definite risks to the incumbent such as noxious fumes, radioactive substances, hostile and aggressive people, and dangerous explosives.

• Tools and Equipment Some duties and tasks are performed using specific equipment and tools. Equipment may include protective clothing. These items need to be specified in a Job Analysis.

• Relationships Supervision given and received. Relationships with internal or external people.

Requirements The knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA's) required to perform the job. While an incumbent may have higher KSA's than those required for the job, a Job Analysis typically only states the minimum requirements

Five job analysis techniques/methods suited for selection-oriented job analysis are:

 Critical Incident

 Job Element

 Structured Interview

 Task Inventory

 Total Competency

Regardless of the method of job analysis used, the information/data collected requires at least an informal analysis and interpretation that is documented and formalized to be considered a bona fide method of job analysis.

These methods are used for several reasons. First, they have no predefined set of factors so they allow for more flexibility than a predetermined factor structure. Second, these methods cover a range of needs in doing job analyses. They differ in reliability, validity, required documentation, required resources and required time. A more thorough job analysis produces a higher quality of reliability, validity and documentation.


A typical method of Job Analysis would be to give the incumbent a simple questionnaire to identify job duties, responsibilities, equipment used, work relationships, and work environment. The completed questionnaire would then be used to assist the Job Analyst who would then conduct an interview of the incumbent(s). A draft of the identified job duties, responsibilities, equipment, relationships, and work environment would be reviewed with the supervisor for accuracy. The Job Analyst would then prepare a job description and/or job specifications.

Questionnaire design is a long process that demands careful attention. A questionnaire is a powerful evaluation tool and should not be taken lightly. Design begins with an understanding of the capabilities of a questionnaire and how they can help your research. If it is determined that a questionnaire is to be used, the greatest care goes into the planning of the objectives. Questionnaires are like any scientific experiment. One does not collect data and then see if they found something interesting. One forms a hypothesis and an experiment that will help prove or disprove the hypothesis.

Questionnaires are versatile, allowing the collection of both subjective and objective data through the use of open or closed format questions. Modern computers have only made the task of collecting and extracting valuable material more efficient. However, a questionnaire is only as good as the questions it contains. There are many guidelines that must be met before you questionnaire can be considered a sound research tool. The majority deals with making the questionnaire understandable and free of bias. Mindful review and testing is necessary to weed out minor mistakes that can cause great changes in meaning and interpretation. When these guidelines are followed, the questionnaire becomes a powerful and economic evaluation tool.

An example of a job analysis questionnaire is in the appendix along with a more detailed description of observation and interview methods

The method that you may use in Job Analysis will depend on practical concerns such as type of job, number of jobs, number of incumbents, and location of jobs.

REFER TO Table 1 - Job Analysis Methods provides an overview of each method, the resources needed and advantages and disadvantages of the five methods.

Step 4: Schedule the necessary and logical

work steps.

The number of involved individuals, their skills, education, and experience; and the necessary time required to perform the assignments are the primary cost factors.

The steps needed to develop a budget include:-

1. determine the intended use of the job analysis

2. decide on instrument to be used to gather relevant information

3. identify the jobs to be studied

4. appraise the knowledge, trust and willingness to assist of employees

5. identify the job analysis activities and required times


Job analysis is the systematic assembly of all the facts about a job. The purpose is to study the individual elements and duties. All information related to the salary and benefits, working hours and conditions, typical tasks and responsibilities is required for the job analysis. The results of job analysis are job description and job specification, which is the systematic assembly of all the facts about a job. The purpose is to study the individual elements and duties. All information related to the salary and benefits, working hours and conditions, typical tasks and responsibilities is required for the job analysis. The results of job analysis are job description and job specification.


Who is involved in a Job Analysis? The Job Analysis may be conducted by a member of the employer's Human Resources department. This analysis may be in conjunction with the job incumbent (if the position is not vacant), the incumbent's supervisor, and possibly subject matter experts (SMEs).

Are there Federal guidelines for Job Analysis? The Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures states that a thorough job analysis is needed for supporting a selection procedure (see: 60-3.9 - No assumption of validity. Section B.)

The Americans with Disabilities Act specifically states:

No covered entity shall discriminate against a qualified individual with a disability because of the disability of such individual in regard to job application procedures, the hiring, advancement, or discharge of employees, employee compensation, job training, and other terms, conditions, and privileges of employment.

The Act defines "qualified individual with a disability" as someone with a disability who:

"with or without reasonable accommodation, can perform the essential functions of the employment position that such individual holds or desires." (see ADA Section 101. Definitions (8)).

Essential functions may be determined through a Job Analysis.

Is there software to perform Job Analysis? HR-Guide offers an on-line form for creating Position Description Questionnaires. You may use this application to create the form that will be useful in collecting the job information.

What are sources of information for conducting a Job Analysis? Before a Job Analysis is conducted, the job analyst should review external sources if job information including:

• Dictionary of Occupational Titles

• U.S. Standard Occupational Classification System

• Other on-line job descriptions

What is Functional Job Analysis? Functional Job Analysis (FJA) was used by U.S. Employment Service job analysts to classify jobs for the DOT (Fine & Wiley, 1971). The most recent version of FJA uses seven scales to describe what workers do in jobs: (1) Things, (2) Data, (3) People, (4) Worker Instructions, (5) Reasoning, (6) Math, and (7) Language.

What is the Position Analysis Questionnaire? This questionnaire, developed by McCormick, Jeanneret, and Mecham (1972), is a standardized job analysis instrument. It consists of 187 job elements that describe generic human work behaviors. This questionnaire was designed to be used for a wide variety of jobs.

What is the Critical Incident Technique? This method of Job Analysis focuses on identifying the critical incidents that distinguish satisfactory workers from unsatisfactory workers. This is based on the theory that certain tasks are crucial to satisfactory job performance, while others are not. In this method, the job analyst interviews incumbents and/or supervisors to identify a list of critical incidents. The identification of required Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSAs) is made by examining the incidents--their causes and solutions. This technique is useful for developing work sample tests.

What is the Job Element Method? This method of Job Analysis, developed by Ernest Primoff, is a worker oriented method and is used primarily with lesser skilled workers and industrial occupations. This method, like the Critical Incident Technique, focuses on satisfactory workers. This method attempts to identify the characteristics of satisfactory workers (job elements). Once identified, these elements are used to develop appropriate selection tests. The steps to perform a Job Element job analysis are:

• Select a group of experts (may include incumbents and supervisors)

• Conduct brainstorming sessions to identify job elements (the KSA's of satisfactory workers).

• Assign weights to each of the elements based on the following criteria:

a. proportion of barely acceptable workers who have the job element;

b. effectiveness of the element in picking a superior worker;

c. the trouble likely to occur if the element is not considered; and

d. practicality--the effect of including the job element on the organization's ability to fill job openings.

• Analyze the Job Element data.


Б How to Prepare and Conduct Job Element Examinations ., Primoff, 1975.

Б High-Impact Hiring ., Joseph Rosse, Robert Levin, 1997

Б Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures ., Federal Register, Vol. 43, No. 166, August 25, 1978.

Compensation Management in a Knowledge Based World.. Richard I. Henderson

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