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Category: Social Issues
Autor: anton 28 November 2010
Words: 2724 | Pages: 11
THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEDIA TECHNOLOGY
By Armitha Raras.D
FACULTY OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF PELITA HARAPAN
The person who introduced the electromagnetic waves for the first time is James Clerk Maxwell at London University. Then in 1879 George F. FritzGerald proposed the oscillatory currents produced by capacitor charging through inductor might generate Maxwellâ€™s waves. Radio waves are one from of electromagnetic radiation. This is the other forms of infrared radiation, light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and Gamma rays. In each forms of electromagnetic radiation consists of oscillatory electric and magnetic filed transverse wave that travel through space at a speed of about 300.000 km per second (180.000 miles per second).
Information, which sends through radio wave, will face interference. To overcome the interference then the standard technique is to combine the signal containing the information with a much higher frequency carrier wave in a process called modulation. Pulse modulation and single side band is usually used for radiotelephony, radiotelegraphy telemetry and other services. The pulse modulation is divided into pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM), pulse-position modulation (PPM), and pulse-duration modulation (PCM). Single side band (SSB) is divided into lower side band and upper side band.
The components of radio technology consists of:
a. Power supply is a direct current power supplying the radio frequency oscillator.
b. Radio frequency oscillator it converts the power to determine by its dimensions.
c. Frequency multiplier.
d. Radio frequency amplifier.
e. Modulator combines the amplified radio-frequency signal.
f. Audio frequency multiplier
g. Transmission line electrical transmission line connects the transmitter to the transmitting antenna.
h. Antenna is designed to launch to an electromagnetic wave or to intercept a fraction of a transmitted wave for reception.
The main point is that the role of vibration. Every voice and sound can be heard because there are vibrations from 20 kHz up to 20.000 kHz. This vibration then manipulated the magnetic produced by electricity and then becomes the electromagnetic. The electromagnetic becomes wave through the air and may reach everywhere to a far distance. The principle of radio waves makes possible to other media electronic communication such as television, radio astronomy, radar, and etc. Later development then the electromagnetic can be replaced by light wave as it called laser i.e. light amplification by emission radiation.
The audio movie film had been fantastic developed without realizing by the spectators or audience. There are so many experiments had been made to improve the audio movie film technology by using digital, subwoofer speaker, Dolby system, time code, etc. the sound of movie film is not producing one audio channel but it has developed into multi audio channel.
Since 1939 the audio film technology showed slowly progress. But until the 1950â€™s it was found a magnetic strip for 35 and 70 mm. In 35-mm film cinemascope as 20th Century Fox product equipped by four magnetic tracks each for left and right and its surroundings. Since 1950 till 70s decade the audio of film movie is still progressing in static, in form of mono optical or two-channel stereo. Then in 1970 Dolby began to use matrix technique which change medium of 2 tracks optic stereo became 4 channel audio front left, front center and front right and itâ€™s surroundings with mono audio systems.
The Cinema Digital Sound (CDS) is the first medium digital audio in 1990 using for film bioscope, produced in cooperation with Optical Radiation Corporation (ORC) with Eastman Kodak Company. Mr. Dick Tracy produced for the first time using 70-mm film accompanied by using audio CDS. The CDS is the first sophisticated digital technique recorded in form of bitmap without data compression. The pattern of bitmap has lots of small pixels. The Kodak Company invented the bitmap recording. The plain of Bitmap is to replace the plain of track of analog optic audio, which is placed between sprocket and its perforation of the frame of picture.
The market does not always absorb the revolution in audio movie digital technology although it is a new invention with highly quality of voice. The Dolby system for example, it is not compatible with CDS and therefore, the audio movie change into SR/D. the difference with CDS is that Dolby SR/D compatible with the audio analog optic. Difference to CDS and Dolby Digital, then DTS does not have bitmap, but a time code track. Data audio DTS does not store in the bitmap but at the CD-ROMA record. In order to synchronize between the sequence films with audio CD-ROM then â€œtime codeâ€ was using.
The SDDS (Sony Dynamic Digital Sound) was released in 1993 with the first film entitled â€œ In the Line of Fireâ€ and â€œLast Action Heroâ€. The concept of original of SDDS is audio system and I channel i.e. there are 2 additional channels in center right and center left. Therefore in the front of the spectators are installed 5 speakers, left, center left, center, and center right, and right. Surrounding the audience plus one subwoofer.
The discovery of television is one of the most visual impressions in the 20th century. About 750 millions people witnessed the funeral of President John Kennedy and 600 millions people around the world saw man first set foot on the moon in July 1969 with astronaut Edwin Aldrin. In his statement Aldrin said: â€ First step on the moon, giant step for the mankindâ€. There are lots of kinds of TV nowadays, such as TV Channels, Color Television, Cable TV, Pay Television, Educational Television, Public Television, Flat TV Screen, TV Receiver, Camera TV, and lots more to come.
In the US alone 880 televisions were on air in 1970, 509 commercial stations In VHF, 181 commercial in UHF, 82 publics UHF stations. And about 59,4 millions home equipped with one or more TV receiver and 25,3 millions homes had color TV. Network television has sold a record $ 1.7 billions worth of time to advertisers in 1969, and the average of American viewers watching television 6,5 hours a day.
In 1883 Paul Nipkow a German scientist invented a scanning device that could break down the image into a sequence of tiny pictorial elements. Experiments with mechanical scanning device were pursued in the 1920â€™s. Charles Francis Jenkins of US used elaborations of the Nipkow invention in 1890, for possibility of television demonstrated in 1925, in Washington D.C. John Logie Baird, a Scottish inventor following the similar lines of investigation made a public demonstration in 1926. By 1928 he had broadcast television pictures in color, outdoor scene and stereoscopic scenes. Baird also televised motion picture. The first dramatic production on television The Queenâ€™s Messenger aired on 11 September 1928.
In 1945 the US Federal/communication or US FCC authorized black and white television on 13 channels in the VHF between 44 and 216 megahertz (MHZ), channels 1 through 6 were assigned frequencies within the band from 174 to 146 MHz. There was also some sharing of the TV channels where it could be established that no interference would result.
There was argument in the US whether the TV station should change into color TV. Some of the stations will change into color TV but the receiver had not been ready for that purpose. But because of the Korean War then the using of color TV had been freezing. In 1953 the National Television System Committee (NTSC) adopted the compatible TV color system support by the most manufactures. The coverage of the color of the moon on earth by Apollo spacecraft brought the color TV much more adopted.
Cable TV or CATV (Community Antenna Television) system provided good picture although the transmitter station is so far away. Cable TV also will overcome the obstacle made by tall building, mountain or other obstruction impede signal reception. The term hybrid originally comes from Latin, hybrida, and hybrida means the offspring of a tame sow and wild boar. It is the offspring of the union of the male one race, variety, species, genus, and etc with the female of another. Artificial hybrid is obtained among plants by cross-pollinating the flowers of distinct species.
The term hybrid media, which is actually a combination between the mass media and the interpersonal media. This is also a combination between the information and the explication. From the hardware side the hybrid media is easy to recognize since this is the only media or technology. But when we talk about the software then this is a problem since we donâ€™t know yet the human psychology toward this media. So when we talk about media hybrid we are talking about software rather than hardware. Prime minister of India, Indira Gandhi when she officially opened the long distance dial telephone system in India she said that the tools are not important to her.
But the most important thing is that what kind of information will go through the tools, what quality of information will be put forward into the cable and how far is the effectiveness of the information will be. Finally the media usage is the same with the previous one, except the mid is existed in the office and the prestige of the company will be more significant. The oldest known mechanical computing aid, the abacus, was used in china as early as the 6th Century BC. And in Mediterranean lands by Greek and Romans time. In 1642 Blaise Pascal invented a mechanical adding machine in which numeral were represented by position of tooth wheels. Advanced calculator was invented by Gotfried Wilhelm von Leibniz 1694 which performed multiplication by repeated addition. Particle calculators were building in the 18th century and came to wide use later.
The computer has five basic section I.e. input, memory, arithmetic logic, control and output. The input section accepts information from various input devices in a form sensible to the computer. The memory section stores information. The arithmetic logic activates input section and receives control signal from it.
The term multi media has just come up with the presence computer and television. At least there are three versions on the notion of multi media. The first is the multi media in terms of hardware, the second one is the service and the third is the software. These meaning have brought about difference in perception and therefore difference in handling the technology. The invention of multimedia or internet brought the tendency of communication development toward multimedia system. The basic of multimedia technology has been identified as the convergence of 3 sub technologies i.e.:
1. Voice Communication
2. Video Communication
3. Compute Communication
To enter the globally of multimedia needs â€œoverlay networksâ€ i.e. the networks integrated with the established networks and no need to build infrastructure in order to achieve efficiency and right target. In the service of multimedia is not only concentrated to the service of people to people, but also should be concentrated to the communication from people to the Center of Information Services or to its content i.e. Central Content. For this reason then Electronic Mega Mall should be established to act as:
i. Source of information
ii. Source of content
iii. Source of all internal activities,
So that all users could have access to the central devices. Therefore multimedia system gives the forms of services from the above sources to the consumers.
Multimedia service is divided to three: Access Service and Backbone System, Content Services, Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Services. This service called telecommunication the second curve using technology internet protocol and Frame Relay. The purpose is to provide infrastructure Voice Gate Way so that they can interact each other without installing own infrastructure by the internet operator. The development of multimedia in Indonesia is depended upon the acceptance of the community to utilize this technology, who will give value-added or rather o maintain the conventional and traditional communication. The services content, which can be provided by Multimedia Technology, are:
i. KIOSnet (Web and Mail hosting)
ii. PLAZAtron (co-location)
iii. ETALASE (Electronic Cataloging and Classifying System).
iv. COMMERCEnet can be provided facility for on-line transaction, secure and in a very short time without leaving the office.
Indonesia has entered the era of satellite technology in August 1976, when the Domestic Communication Satellite System called PALAPA I launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida USA. And then in 1985 Indonesia, under the Department of Information established the Multi Media Training Center in Yogyakarta. The founding fathers thought that Indonesia should apply the most sophisticated technology rather than conventional technology.
The main reason is to provide the future â€œman of technologyâ€ because as an education institute then they must create the man of the future. The Science and Technology Institute of Japan had predicted the application of digital technology since 1971. This institute has also predicted the application of technology for 30 years to come and then every year it will be re-evaluated. In itâ€™s projection technology this institute had divided into 8 disciplines of science, which will be beneficial by mankind. Those technologies are:
i. Early detection to avoid from the earthquake,
ii. Energy (especially) atomic energy
iii. Super conductive
iv. Bio-logical engineering
v. Health and medicines sciences
vi. Astrophysical science
vii. The earth science
viii. Communication technology and information especially ISDN.
By using digital technology in broadcasting will result:
i. To strengthening the competitive position
ii. Comfortable in watching or hearing the broadcasting because the pictures and sound will avoid ghosts or noises.
iii. Cheaper, because no need of expensive antenna or using booster antenna
iv. The allocation of frequency will be done in optimum way
v. Some technical constraints may be overcome.
The process of signal on digital video and audio such as using MAC system can be used widely instead of using analog system. The VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated) chip is enabling to install on TV receiver to obtain good pictures and sounds. Satellite essentially is a very high antenna, because it is impossible to install antenna approximately 36.000 km above the earth. In 1975 John. R Pierce analyzed two methods; one method was to reflect signals of a passive satellite that would have electronic equipments. The second method was to transmit to an active satellite that would have no equipment of receiving and amplifying the signals and retransmit them to earth.
Passive communication satellites such as spherical Echo 1 and 2 satellites had metallic surface for reflecting signals. The signals were beam from a transmitting station, reflected from the satellite and received and amplified to another station because the received signal is quite weak, a very large and sensitive receiving station is required even for the reception of limited amounts of information. The first voice transmission from a satellite occurred on December 19, 1958, when President Eisenhowerâ€™s Christmas message was carried to the world by an orbiting Atlas missile with simple signal repletion equipment aboard. This event provided a unique initial demonstration of the promise of communication satellites.
The first commercial satellite, Early Bird, was placed in orbit over the Atlantic Ocean on April 6, 1965. The synchronous satellite provided one television channel or 240 two-way telephone circuits, about half the number of all telephone cable circuits under the Atlantic. International communications via satellites require multilateral agreements. At 73 countries are signatories to two international agreements opened signature in Washington DC 1964. These agreements, which can be signed by other countries, call for financial support by other countries, call for financial support of the satellite system and provide a seat on the governing body for the International Telecommunication Satellite consortium if the financial participation it at least 1,5 %.
The Intel sat finally positioned the satellites communications in the equator. The purpose is to get the global division into equal, and also the const of the satellite are cheaper. The following is the position of three satellites Of Intelsat that we discussed previously. Since the satellite was positioned on the equator then the countries which passed by this equator line. The countries are Indonesia, Kenya, Uganda, Congo, Republic Democracy de Congo, Gabon, Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Polynesia, and Tuvalu. These countries are still fighting to be acknowledging as â€œthe equatorial countriesâ€.
In the end, after I studied and observed all of the explanation above, I think that mankind have idea that develop to the creation of technology with the purpose to make other mankind have a better life and also to make everything more easier.
The development of radio technology, the revolution of audio movie film technology and the home movie film, the development of television technology, media hybrid or media â€œon-lineâ€ and its various purposes, the principle of multimedia, the developments of broadcasting technology and communication satellite are all man made technology that have on important goal, is to make a better life for the sake of all mankind around the world.