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Autor: anton 23 July 2011
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The dispute concerning the definition, presence and number of basic emotions present at birth is a controversial topic in psychology and numerous definitions and theories exist (Ortony & Turner, 1990). The aim of this essay is to discuss the influence of advances in cognitive development upon the expression of primary and secondary emotions. Most psychologists today suggest that by six months of age the following emotions have appeared: anger, fear, disgust, sadness, joy and happiness (Sroufe, 1996). These are known as the primary emotions which are apparent at birth and within a childÐ²Ð‚â„¢s development during the first few months. However whether these early expressions represent meaningful emotional states or are more indicative of the infant's general arousal level has been questioned (Camras, 1992 cited Bennett, Bendersky & Lewis 2005).
From birth onwards babies start expressing their emotional state which can easily be distinguished between a happy and a distressed infant. It is only with recognition that the infantÐ²Ð‚â„¢s awareness allows a pleasant or unpleasant emotion. Research by Zelazo and Komer (1971) found that up to three months of age a baby will smile at any face. However at around five months of age the baby differentiates between faces and smiles at those it has a facial schema towards. This link between emotions and cognitive advancement was referred as Ð²Ð‚Ñšthe smile which appears to be an open window through which we may view one aspect of cognitive functioning in infantsÐ²Ð‚Ñœ (Zelazo & Komer, 1971, p.1338).
The inception of crawling allows the child to further interact with its environment and broadens the childÐ²Ð‚â„¢s experience to emotions. It was found that those that crawl early develop a fear of heights early and those that crawl at a later age are also late to develop a fear of heights (Campos, Bertenthal & Kermoian, 1992). It is also with the childÐ²Ð‚â„¢s increasing mobility, expanding cognitive capacity and improved perception ability that the forming of attachments occurs, this is seen as a cornerstone in emotional development. Social attachment studies (Ainsworth et al. 1978, 1979; Bowlby, 1958; Schaffer & Emerson, 1964) have shown that a child forms an attachment to a caregiver and separation anxiety and stranger anxiety taking place when the caregiver isnÐ²Ð‚â„¢t present.
This development coincides with PiagetÐ²Ð‚â„¢s theory of object permanence, which occurs at approximately seven to twelve months of childÐ²Ð‚â„¢s life. Hebb (1946 cited Lamb, Bornstein & Teti, 2002) proposed that fear of strangers arises in young children because they have formed mental schemas of familiar individuals and any discrepancy from the familiar evokes emotions of fear. However Berenson (1996) argued against this as it was found that infants could differentiate between their caregivers and strangers by as little as three months yet stranger fear wasnÐ²Ð‚â„¢t shown till they were seven months old. This suggests according to PiagetÐ²Ð‚â„¢s theory of cognitive development that secondary emotions develop earlier.
HebbÐ²Ð‚â„¢s original theory was amended by Kagan, Kearsley and Zelazo (1978) who argued that discrepancies between memory and perception up to the age of six months produce interest opposed to fear in the child. After this age the child has the cognitive capacity to explain the discrepancies using its own schemas and fear is produced when an inconsistency fails to meet the childÐ²Ð‚â„¢s schema. However despite the theories described above it has been argued that no evidence to date supports a relation between object permanence and either stranger or separation distress (Campos et al., 1983; Campos & Stenberg, 1981 cited Witherington et al. 2001)
At approximately two years of age an important cognitive change occurs as children manifest self-conscious emotions which emerge from the childÐ²Ð‚â„¢s developing sense of awareness. These are also known as the secondary emotions which consist of emotions such as embarrassment, pride, shame, empathy and jealousy. These occur in specific circumstances which would illicit such emotions, for instance an unexpected and embarrassing mirror exposure (Lewis & Ramsay, 2002). According to Piaget at this stage in cognitive development the children have acquired self awareness and are then able to make mental representations of themselves and other people, thus allowing more complex emotional expression. Generally, the results from mirror self recognition studies suggest that these are relatively complex tasks that draw upon an array of cognitive skills (Hala, 1999).
Piaget also suggested at this stage of development that childrenÐ²Ð‚â„¢s thinking is still egocentric and wonÐ²Ð‚â„¢t be capable of the viewpoint of others until the latter part of this stage. ChildrenÐ²Ð‚â„¢s empathy will also be egocentric as those who cannot engage in abstract thinking or take someone else's perspective are typically unlikely to respond with empathy. It was later suggested by Hoffmann (2007) that a child will experience empathy differently as they mature cognitively.
It is also with cognitive maturation that a child then eventually forms a theory of mind, Ð²Ð‚Ñšthey become aware that human behavior is guided by mental states of belief, knowledge, memory and imagination that may conflict with overt realityÐ²Ð‚Ñœ (Mcalister & Peterson 2007, p.258). Children can anticipate how someone is thinking or feeling and will be emotionally equipped to respond to the requirements of that person and not generalized from their own understanding.
Self conscious emotions such as pride occur when a child completes a difficult accomplishment and compares it against other children (Lewis, Allessandri & Sullivan, 1992) and exhibits reactions of shame when failing (Stipek, Rechhia & Mclintic, 1992). Harris (1989, cited Barnes 1995) suggested these emotions occur when the child has developed their Ð²Ð‚?theory of mindÐ²Ð‚â„¢ to include a responsibility to abide by others moral codes and standards.
According to Hoffman (1982) in the same way as empathy, guilt cannot occur until the child has cognitive awareness of self. Reactions in response to distress caused to others also increases with age and cognitive maturation (Thomson & Hoffman, 1980).
Whilst some discrepancy between theorists exist as to exactly when stages occur, it is clear that cognitive development is the trigger point of the progression between innate primary emotions evolving to become secondary emotions.
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