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Autor: anton 11 July 2011
Words: 1478 | Pages: 6
"The Six Sigma Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control (DMAIC) Process"1
Six Sigma Ð²Ð‚â€œ DEFINE process includes:
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Define the project: purpose, scope, and resources in the charter
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Develop the SIPOC (Suppliers-Inputs-Process-Outputs-Customers) map to understand the process
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Determine project goals the fit customer needs (Voice of the Customer)
Six Sigma Ð²Ð‚â€œ MEASURE process includes:
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Collect baseline data on suspected problem
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Plot the data in time order
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Use Pareto charts to pinpoint occurrence
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Calculate process sigma
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Create detailed process maps to analyze waste and bottlenecks
Six Sigma Ð²Ð‚â€œ ANALYZE process includes:
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Focus on the problems identified in the "Measure" process
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Brainstorm as many potential causes as possible
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Select a few of the most likely causes and collect data on them
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Use statistical methods to quantify the effects
Six Sigma Ð²Ð‚â€œ IMPROVE process includes:
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Brainstorm many ideas for improvement
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Select solutions: select criteria to assess alternative solutions, then evaluate alternatives through testing
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Develop plans, including tasks, timelines, budget, resources, and stakeholders
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Plot the selected solutions using PDCA cycles
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Implement plans, including the means by which you will check results
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Interpret the charts to quantify effects of solutions
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Evaluate overall results against the methods used to achieve them
Six Sigma Ð²Ð‚â€œ CONTROL process includes:
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Document the new methods in order to develop standard work procedures
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Provide training to those who will use new methods
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Monitor implementation and make course corrections
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Create a process to update and improve the method
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Summarize and communicate key lessons learned to others
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Recommend next project to further increase sigma level
1Condensed from Six Sigma Black Belt Training developed by Oriel Inc
The Cause and Effect Diagram (a.k.a. Fishbone)
By Kerri Simon
When utilizing a team approach to problem solving, there are often many opinions as to the problem's root cause. One way to capture these different ideas and stimulate the team's brainstorming on root causes is the cause and effect diagram, commonly called a fishbone. The fishbone will help to visually display the many potential causes for a specific problem or effect. It is particularly useful in a group setting and for situations in which little quantitative data is available for analysis.
The fishbone has an ancillary benefit as well. Because people by nature often like to get right to determining what to do about a problem, this can help bring out a more thorough exploration of the issues behind the problem - which will lead to a more robust solution.
To construct a fishbone, start with stating the problem in the form of a question, such as 'Why is the help desk's abandon rate so high?' Framing it as a 'why' question will help in brainstorming, as each root cause idea should answer the question. The team should agree on the statement of the problem and then place this question in a box at the 'head' of the fishbone.
The rest of the fishbone then consists of one line drawn across the page, attached to the problem statement, and several lines, or 'bones,' coming out vertically from the main line. These branches are labeled with different categories. The categories you use are up to you to decide. There are a few standard choices:
Table 1: Fishbone Suggested Categories
(The 4 Ps)
________________________________________ Manufacturing Industries
(The 6 Ms)
________________________________________ Process Steps
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Plant/Technology Ð²Ð‚Ñž Machines
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Mother Nature
(People) Ð²Ð‚Ñž Determine Customers
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Advertise Product
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Incent Purchase
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Sell Product
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Ship Product
Ð²Ð‚Ñž Provide Upgrade
You should feel free to modify the categories for your project and subject matter.
Once you have the branches labeled, begin brainstorming possible causes and attach them to the appropriate branches. For each cause identified, continue to ask 'why does that happen?' and attach that information as another bone of the category branch. This will help get you to the true drivers of a problem.
Figure 1: Fishbone Diagram Example
Once you have the fishbone completed, you are well on your way to understanding the root causes of your problem. It would be advisable to have your team prioritize in some manner the key causes identified on the fishbone. If necessary, you may also want to validate these prioritized few causes with a larger audience.
Process Improvement Made Easy: The Cause and Effect aka Ishikawa aka Fishbone Diagram
The Ishikawa diagram comes under many guises; cause and effect diagram or fishbone diagram, but itÐ²Ð‚â„¢s generally referring to the same problem solving tool. Dr Kaoru Ishikawa, an esteemed quality expert, gave his name to this simple, yet effective problem solving tool. In this Process Improvement Made Easy series, is the fishbone diagram explained in everyday language.
Why use a Cause and Effect Diagram?
If you want to discover the root cause of a problem and need a structured method to guide a team through a problem solving process, then the cause and effect diagram is for you. The tool allows a team to identify, explore and display in increasing detail, all of the possible causes of a problem, to eventually flush out the root cause(s) of the problem.
How do I use a Fishbone Diagram?
The process to follow is basically the same, regardless of industry or problem. ItÐ²Ð‚â„¢s best to gather a team of people who have the right skills, knowledge and experience of the problem to collectively identify all the reasons why the problem may be occurring.
Top Tip - How Do You Eat An Elephant?
If your ideal team list is long, your problem is possibly too complex to solve in one hit, so consider breaking your problem up into more manageable (and edible!) chunks.
Okay, youÐ²Ð‚â„¢ve assembled your team Ð²Ð‚â€œ now you have to agree on a problem statement.
ItÐ²Ð‚â„¢s Cookie Time!
LetÐ²Ð‚â„¢s take the fictitious example of a Cookie making process.
The problem statement could be Ð²Ð‚ÑšCookies are sometimes burnt or undercooked and have to be thrown awayÐ²Ð‚Ñœ. This might be enough detail, but itÐ²Ð‚â„¢s probably worth detailing Ð²Ð‚ÑšwhatÐ²Ð‚Ñœ, Ð²Ð‚ÑšwhereÐ²Ð‚Ñœ, Ð²Ð‚ÑšwhenÐ²Ð‚Ñœ and Ð²Ð‚Ñšhow muchÐ²Ð‚Ñœ to get a better understanding of the problem.
The problem statement could be refined as Ð²Ð‚Ñš4% of double chocolate chip cookies are burnt, and 0.5% are undercooked, and have to be thrown awayÐ²Ð‚Ñœ. At this point you might reason that itÐ²Ð‚â„¢s better to focus on the larger problem, and attempt to resolve the undercooking problem another day.
Top Tip - If It Moves, Measure It!
If you canÐ²Ð‚â„¢t quantify your problem, consider collecting some data before you go any further. Remember, youÐ²Ð‚â„¢re aiming to separate fact from opinion and identify the root cause of the problem.
Draw the following fishbone diagram template up on a flip chart or large board, ensuring plenty of space.
Top Tip - The Writing's On The Wall
In most cases, it will be most practical to write on paper, as this can be rolled up and brought to the next meeting.
You Shall Have a Fishy...
The problem statement is written at the Ð²Ð‚ÑšheadÐ²Ð‚Ñœ of the fish, with the 4 main causes of the problem coming of from the back bone. In manufacturing, the four main cause headings are usually Ð²Ð‚ÑšMachinery, People, Methods and MaterialÐ²Ð‚Ñœ or in a service industry Ð²Ð‚ÑšPolicy, Procedures, Plant and PeopleÐ²Ð‚Ñœ. Alternatively, you could list major steps in the process.
Top Tip - Sprats or Salmon?
There is no right way to do this - indeed you may require 6 bones. Just make the fishbone fit the problem, and your appetite!
Now itÐ²Ð‚â„¢s over to the team to come up with as many reasons why the problem is occurring.
Top Tip - Problems, problems!
Task the team with individually writing problem causes on post-it notes Ð²Ð‚â€œ one problem per note Ð²Ð‚â€œ for, say, 10 minutes. Then as a team, place each reason under the main cause headings, building up a detailed picture of why the problem is happening.
If youÐ²Ð‚â„¢re team are newly formed, consider using icebreakers or creative brainstorming activities to warm things up.
Top Tip - and the fish said "What is water?"
Remember that people are natural problem solvers and may have spent years doing creative work arounds, to get over routine problems. Indeed, these practices may be so ingrained theyÐ²Ð‚â„¢re considered part of the job. If so, itÐ²Ð‚â„¢s your job to flush this out and solve the root cause of the problem by asking Ð²Ð‚Ñšwhy, why, whyÐ²Ð‚Ñœ for each reason.
Why, oh why, oh why!
YouÐ²Ð‚â„¢ve completed a detailed fishbone diagram, and asked why 3 times for each reason. What next? There are probably a few causes that stand out as being the most likely root causes, and now itÐ²Ð‚â„¢s time to take action. It may be that further monitoring and data collection is required to establish a solid connection between the root cause and the effect, or you may have to rely on common sense and Ð²Ð‚Ñšgut feelÐ²Ð‚Ñœ on where to start. Either way, you will have a clearer understanding of the problem and whatÐ²Ð‚â„¢s causing it, and invest time and money on the right solution.
Whether you choose to call it the Fishbone, Cause and Effect or Ishikawa Diagram, it's an effective, every day problem solving tool. Just keep it simple!
This document and anlysis during presentation by:
By Lyndsay Swinton
Owner, Management for the Rest of Us