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Category: History Other
Autor: anton 14 March 2011
Words: 902 | Pages: 4
Russian at begging of twentieth century was one of the great powers of Europe. However, in comparison with Britain, Germany, and France, Russia was late in industrialization and economic development. As the out come of the world war one Russian, 900,000 to 2,500,000 Russians were kill. Economically Russia was devastated. 8,000,000,000 rubles in war debts were outstanding. Society was deeply divided and the political structure was fragile and overstrained. The raise of Vladimir Ilyitch Lenin with his revolution, soon the Bolshevik takes the power; new government under the communist control was taking into effect after the first Great War.
In the twenty-five years preceding the outbreak of the First World War RussiaÐ²Ð‚â„¢s economic problem were largely agrarian. In 1914, three quarters of RussiaÐ²Ð‚â„¢s work force was still employed on the land. Such a high proportion of agricultural workers invariably mean that there are over concentrated of the available work force on the land then there are workersÐ²Ð‚â„¢ workings in industrial factory. Although Russian has most of its work force on land, Russian agriculture was poised precariously between painstakingly won success and occasional utter ruin. Industrial wise the Tsarist Russia were best equipped of natural resource to become a great industrial power. However, Russia possessed large quantities of every conceivable type of material with in its border Russia fail to exploit the resource to the full. Russian industry, faced dilemmas. Ð²Ð‚Ñš the through of 1905 and the ensuring recession was follwed by sustained recovery aided vitally by an enormous French loan and expansion contiuned through out the first world war.Ð²Ð‚Ñœ With most of itÐ²Ð‚â„¢s peasants and workers remaind poor, factory workers intensified their struggle in 1912-1914 there are 5032 the asstrikes broke out, two third of the stike were associated with political demands. With internal economic and political unstable, the great world war soon brought RussianÐ²Ð‚â„¢s economic and political into crisis.
On 28 June 1914 the austrian archduke franz ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo, and the Austro-Hungrian government exploited the opportunity to provoke dispute with Sebia. With an unintentional support for the serbisns, an great world war engulfed Europe. The motives of each contry was different, Russia under Nikolai II, he was concerned his countryÐ²Ð‚â„¢s prestige and itÐ²Ð‚â„¢s pretention o status as a great power. Following the declearation of war, all section of the population joined in the patriotic enthusiasm. Anti-government strikes and demonstrations were abandones optimism was in the ascendant. however, with the protraction of the fighting into 1915, the railways became overloaded and undermaintained, priority was given to shipping conscripts, munitions and food to the eastern front. Good harvest in 1914 and 1915 were followed by a drop in cereal production in 1916 by 10 percent before first world war. more whreat were ruined by the disruption of war, many other held out for higher prices and turn into illicit commercial vodka. Evern more important was the withdraeal of million of men from their occupation. In the relation to the total male population of working age these numbers were equal to 15% in 1914, 25%in 1915, 36% in 1917, the withdrawal of such large number of men was bound to have far reaching upon the economic life of the country. Industry was the greatest sufferer. Primmary reason was Russia industry had always been inadequately provide with Labor, the war withdrawed great numbers of skilled worker from factories.
The Great war, affected the middle class in a large degree by the economic privation and harship they had to endure. Rise in the cost of living. The inadequacy of the railroad to perforem the double task of providing for the army and the civilian population, led to a considerable reducton in the supply of foodstuffs for the cities and towns. Under the situation rapid raise in the cost of living was unavoidable. Middle class wich depended for its livivng on fixed incomes, were the chief suffer during the time. the refugee from areas occupied by the enermy, wound and sick soilder increase the population in the city which further aggravated the rise of the cost of living. Although many middle class worker recived increase salaries, but a decline which contiuned in spite of raise of their nominal earing. In the year of 1916 life in towns and cities had become a virtual ordeal. The news paper were filled with reports from all parts russia, all alike dealing with crisis of foodstuffs. Wheat growing provinces, the work of the flour mills had to be periodically suspended for lack of grain. In many citties, thousands were waiting in line for oil, lack of fuel necessitated the closing down of the electric power station, shuting off the water supply. Many were injured by those compelled to stand in meat and fuel lines during the cold weather. The shortage of food supply results was that in Moscow the daily ration of bread was reduce to half pound. the economic disorganization, which soon began give great number of the illiterate mass of the peasants a introduction to new political situation. On the easten front the army were unwilling to fihgt the Germans, openly discussion on the nessity of class war were held among the soliders.
The war changed the nature of the national economy and society as a whole. With the workerÐ²Ð‚â„¢s strikes and demonstrations and the soldierÐ²Ð‚â„¢s mutiny. The febuary revolution began with women worker went ou to street with a singled demand- Ð²Ð‚ÑšbreadÐ²Ð‚Ñœ. the strick were