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Category: Business

Autor: anton 02 December 2010

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Executive summary

Swedish company IKEA was the world's largest furniture retailer since the early 1990s. It sold inexpensive furniture of Scandinavian design. The company operated in 55 countries with a workforce of 76,000. IKEA offered nearly 12,000 items to the home furnishings market worldwide. It sold a wide range of products including furniture, accessories, bathrooms and kitchens at 186 retail stores in 30 countries across Europe, North America, Southeast Asia, Middle East and Austral. IKEA is well known for its unique concept, low price, wide range of product and flat packing.

This report shows the understanding of strategic application, and applies the tools and concepts to IKEA case. It covers three main parties; the first is summary which has brief introduction of IKEA, and then describe IKEAЎ¦s strategies position and business- level strategy. The second is assessments, evaluates and assess the strengths and weaknesses of IKEAЎ¦s business- level strategy; also extent synergy between the strategic position and the business-level strategy. The last part is recommendations, according the second part to recommend some future strategic options for IKEA.


Chapter One -Summary

„X Introduction

„X Strategy position

„Н Macro analysis- PESTEL

„Н Strategy capabilities

„Н Leadership

„Н Culture

„X Business- level strategy

Chapter Two- Assessment

„X Synergy between IKEAЎ¦s strength and business- level strategy

„X Weakness of IKEAЎ¦s strategy

Chapter Three- Recommendations

„X Perspectives for IKEA

„X Consistence in simple and stylish furniture

„X Return to activities ЎV Focus on imperfect trade model

„X Concentrate on simple structure for internal control

„X Standardization V.S. Localization



Chapter One


IKEA Svenska AB, founded in 1943 is the world's largest furniture retailer that specializes in stylish but inexpensive Scandinavian designed furniture. It has 128 fully-owned stores in 26 countries, visited by over 108 million people yearly and worldwide sales of about $5.4 billion in 1994. IKEA's success in the retail industry can be attributed to its vast experience in the retail market, product differentiation, and cost leadership. The company is, perhaps, one of the World's most successful multinational retailing firms operating as a global organization based on its unique concept that the furniture is sold in kits that are assembled by the customer at home (IKEA Annual Report, 2002).

IKEA's mission is to offer a wide range of home furnishing items of good design and function, excellent quality and durability, at prices so low that the majority of people can afford to buy them. The company targets the customer who is looking for value and is willing to do a little bit of work serving themselves, transporting the items home and assembling the furniture for a better price. The typical IKEA customer is young low to middle income family.

Macro analysis ÐŽV PESTEL


Globalization has encouraged the relaxation of import control rules. By doing so, cheap imports, especially from Asia and Latin America, have saturated the domestic furniture market. Most furniture trade regulations are based on some globalization friendly agreements, such as World Trade Organization (WTO). However there is critical issue Ў§dumpingЎЁ which refers to many Chinese enterprises are accused of dumping because they receive government subsidies, which, other nations' manufacturers contend, allows them to sell their products for less than cost. (Mintel report, 2004)


Large items of furniture in the home are usually planned purchases and typical ticket prices are high. This makes major items of furniture vulnerable to economic cycles. A strong economy and high levels of consumer confidence will help to stimulate demand, while a downturn in consumer confidence can lead to purchases of large items being deferred. Furthermore the growth in PDI (Personal disposable income), which in turn has led to growth in consumer spending and this has benefited the overall market for furniture and furnishings. (Mintel report)


Nowadays consumers are also looking for a lifestyle, as TV makeover programmes are encouraging them to be more design-literate and aware of changing fashions. Therefore many consumers are willing to refurbish or rebuild houses and consume on furniture expenditure. On the other hand, most peopleЎ¦s attitudes of shopping furniture, price-related issues are well up the list of priorities for many furniture shoppers. ЎҐIn my price rangeЎ¦ as well as ЎҐfree deliveryЎ¦ and ЎҐgood after-sales serviceЎ¦ rank very high among the features considered important by consumers. (Mintel report, 2004)


Speed of technology transfer and knowledge share is vital element in the business process. Furthermore many companies utilise the self-service technology to keep customers at armЎ¦s length and also increase customer grows.


Environmental protection laws, waste disposal, and energy consumption are main issues in environment condition. In the mid-1980s, IKEA ran into an environmental problem that had significant implications on the firm's furniture line. Tests on some IKEA particle-board furniture products showed that formaldehyde emissions exceeded the standard specified by Danish environmental law. Moreover IKEA was also criticized for the amount of waste produced in the making of the catalogs and from discarded catalogs after their use. Then in 1990, IKEA adopted The Natural Step (TNS) as the basic structure for implementation of its environmental policy and plan. Using the TNS principles and system conditions, and made a number of changes affecting its products and services (Heidi Owens, 1998).


Legal condition has been considered in term of employment law, health and safety, competition law ad product safety. In IKEAЎ¦s case, majority production takes place in lower-cost countries such as China and Poland, IKEA conform to certain criteria regarding local legal, employment, social and environmental responsibilities. These include not using child labour and providing safe working environments. (Bill, 1987)

Industrial structure/ competitors

A countryЎ¦s industrial structure is depicted by the characteristics of its business population. Taking example from the UK, the furniture industry has been dominated by several large groups. Such as MFI, IKEA, DFS, Courts, Generally the highest margins are being made by vertically integrated companies. However the specialist sector is continuing to concentrate into fewer, larger players, although it overall the UK market is still fragmented and unconsolidated - the top ten retailers control only 25% of the market. (See appendix1) (Mintel report, 2004)


IKEA was founded in 1943 by 17 year-old Ingvar Kamprad. As a young entrepreneur in south Sweden, Kamprad soon turned his business into a mail order operation selling a variety of household products, particularly furniture.

The character of leadership for Ingvar Kamprad is to motivate employees and coworkers, respect for the individual and also build trust in the group and open climate and give a lot of freedom. In other words, Ingvar Kamprad established IKEA as a flat and non-bureaucratic organisation with a high degree of devolved responsibility and accountability ÐŽV an empowering and enabling environment which stimulates creativity, innovation and collaboration

IKEAЎ¦s Culture

IKEA based on a few values that have their roots in Smålandish or Swedish culture. The basic value of company is in term of creating better everyday life for the many people. IKEA operates with some values include simplicity, humility, and honesty in internal relations among co-workers and in external relations with suppliers and customers; risk-taking, daring to be different, always questioning assumptions and asking "why"; and daring to take responsibility. IKEA lets people have responsibilities and most importantly, IKEA believe and emphasis on coworkersЎ¦ personal lives and the importance of a work/life balance. At IKEA, the opportunity is to be able to do the things in life that bring success and happiness is extremely valuable to coworkers.

Relating to the IKEA founder, Ingvar Kamprad has established strong and solid brand with good-quality at low prices. Also due to his obsessive attention to every item that would add to cost therefore, cost reduction became ingrained in the company culture (Johnson, Scholes and Whittington, 2005).

Strategy capability

Competitive advantage is more likely to be created and sustained if the organisation has distinctive or unique capabilities that competitors cannot imitate. This may be because the organisation has some unique resources and core competences (Johnson, Scholes and Whittington, 2005). The unique resources of IKEA are leadership and Scandinavian style designed. IKEA had a presence in more than 30 countries and was well known for its good-quality products marketed at relatively low prices. This accomplishment has been achieved by the vision of the founder Ingvar Kamprad.

IKEA have consolidated designed department, Com-in, to discover consumersЎ¦ need and design for them. All Com-in specialists are from either an interior design background or visual merchandising, and are responsible for the presentation or IKEA product offers using all current range presentation medias and techniques.

Core competences are cost leadership, global sourcing, differentiation, and branding. IKEA controls every aspect of the process, from manufacturing to the time the product reaches the consumer. And at every step along the way, IKEA cuts its costs through global strategies. Moreover IKEA buys in global quantities; it is able to get goods manufactured at a relatively low cost. In addition, the company is intent on having good made in the most economical way possible, even if that means using unconventional suppliers to produce furniture or using different suppliers for different components of one item. Furthermore, IKEA outsources its manufacturing in many different countries and also outsources final assembly and delivery to the customers themselves meanwhile IKEA expands its brand with its concept worldwide (Zeller, 2002)

Business-level strategy of IKEA

IKEA simultaneously achieves differentiation and a low price, and this fits in with the hybrid strategy. IKEA offers prices that are 30 to 50 percent lower than fully assembled competing products (Tanja, 2002). This is a result of large-quantity purchasing, low-cost logistics, store location in suburban areas, and the do-it-yourself approach to marketing. IKEAЎ¦s prices are various from market to market, largely because of fluctuation in exchange rates and differences in taxation regimes, but price positioning is kept as standardized as possible. Furthermore, IKEA offers vary wide range of products with light, modern, simple and practical Scandinavian design. Most of items are developed to be extensive enough to have something that appeals to everyone and to cover all functions in the home. IKEA does not only achieve its differentiation on furniture but also cater different products and considerable service for customers. Such as carrying an assortment of plans, housewears and restaurants have been well known for meatball, hotdogЎK.etc, and this show the companyЎ¦s Swedish heritage and culture of quality and value.

Chapter Two

Synergy between IKEAЎ¦s strength and business- level strategy

IKEA lives up with its unique concept based on founder, Ingvar Kamprad, and an almost obsessive attention to every item that would add to cost (Financial Times, 2003). The concept is also the core value of company which deeply spreads and communicates among employees, customers, and suppliers worldwide. Furthermore this unique concept interacts with IKEAЎ¦s strategy capabilities and hyper strategy. In this part, it will discuss and extent the synergy between the strategic position of IKEA and its hyper strategy.

Low prices are a common feature among the worldЎ¦s best retailers, and there is no except on IKEA. IKEAЎ¦s objective is to Ў§offer a wide range of well-designed, functional home furnishing products at prices so low that as many people as possible will be able to afford themЎЁ. It is able to do so by following a strategy of cost leadership, and IKEA has done that with several different ways. Initially, IKEA has chosen to perform activities differently from its rivals and innovates simple idea of keeping price between customers and suppliers down. IKEA now buys from about 1,800 suppliers in 55 countries (Hollensen, 1998) also uses subcontracted to work with them. Specifically speaking, most IKEAЎ¦s suppliers are usually located in low cost nations with close to raw materials and dependable access to distribution channels. These suppliers produce standardised products and large product size which provides the firm with the opportunity to take advantage of economies of scale (Hollensen, 1998). Therefore IKEA reduces its supplier costs through long product runs and volume production. Moreover, IKEA controls its products at low price through packing items compactly in flat standardized packaging and stacking them as high as possible to reduce storage space during and after distribution. Due to focus on low price packing the disassembled items in boxes that facilitate shipping, storage and handling reduces distribution costs.

On the other hand, IKEA built the partnership with customers in term of self assemble, delivery the products and enjoy shopping experience alone. These self-service in the stores reduces employee wages, also diminish the salesmen or saleswomen. All over all, the essential element of the corporate culture is to continually seek more cost effective ways of running the business.

Continually discussing about cost effectiveness from IKEAЎ¦s concept, such as choosing location, IKEA developed big stores on the outskirts of the cities rather than constructed in central cities with high rent. However this optimum plan once has been frustrated by complexities of UK planning law caused that IKEA have realised that it need to comply with UK planning requirements. Therefore the only way to IKEA just can expand in the UK is close to the city centres, and so far it is difficult for IKEA stores to find space on the high street. Consequently to build shop in centres that will definitely cause the extra cost of these stores was possible to mean that IKEAЎ¦s low prices would have to rise over the long term. Moreover in the end only the customers pay for retailers increased construction costs (Mintel report, 2004).

Furthermore, costs are kept under control by using resources wisely and environmental friendly. These also related to IKEA social responsibility and reputation of branding. IKEA tries to work economically with raw material, energy and other resources. Such as using fewer raw materials and create less waste and discharge. Also IKEA utilises wood which is a recyclable, biodegradable and renewable material on its wide rang products. However, there was an environmental challenge in the mid-1980s, and IKEA ran into an environmental problem that had significant implications on the firm's furniture line. Tests on some IKEA particle-board furniture products showed that formaldehyde emissions exceeded the standard specified by Danish environmental law. In addition to the formaldehyde crisis, in the late 1980s IKEA became aware that it was being criticized more often for environmentally-related issues. For example, IKEA began to receive criticism for its packaging waste and for the use of PVC plastic which had become a big issue in Germany where the biggest sale market is for IKEA. Moreover IKEA was also criticized for the amount of waste produced in the making of the catalogues and from discarded catalogues after their use (Heidi, 1998).

IKEA started to seek to achieve substantial environmental improvements by focusing implementation efforts on structural changes, those that impact processes, methods, or material content. Then in 1990, IKEA adopted The Natural Step (TNS) as the basic structure for implementation of its environmental policy and plan. Using the TNS principles and system conditions, IKEA has made a number of changes affecting its products and services. There are several efforts which IKEA has been done such as choosing Ў§train the trainersЎЁ approach to disseminating the environmental education. Also IKEA built the database which was created that contains brief descriptions of different topical environmental issues with summaries of known facts, and IKEA shared these databases with its co-works, suppliers and manufacturers. IKEA set out to create a line of products under the new name of Ў§Eco-PlusЎЁ consisting of products that had one or more environmental advantages. (Heidi, 1998)

Overall IKEA has done quite well on its cost leadership position which linked to companyЎ¦s objective and concept on above process. IKEA successfully offers customersЎ¦ furniture with components derived from all around the world utilising multi level competitive advantages, low cost logistics and large retail outlets in suburban so on. Moreover cost leadership have been tightly incorporated into IKEAЎ¦s culture and concept though efficient processes (Hollensen, 1998).

IKEA is clear different from other competitors, IKEAЎ¦s unique resources, leadership, brings unique concept and culture into IKEA, and they influence deeply IKEAЎ¦s strategy. Moreover successful differentiation may support business a competitive advantage.

Wide rang of products were designed by IKEAЎ¦s unique designed team which named Com-in, and Com-in specialists are from either an interior design background or visual merchandising. The Com-in department gives the store inspiration and vitality and works closely with the store sales and logistics teams to ensure customers always see something new and exciting.

Specifically speaking, IKEAЎ¦s cost leadership may attract wider audiences for multinational company. In terms of customer segmentation, IKEA clearly aimed at generic younger generation and middle-income family. Different from traditional furniture rivals, in order to gain above target audience, IKEA designed and developed a series of elegant, simple, and modern designs which are made by qualified woods as a way to democratize its product ranges. Such appealed of style furniture across national barriers to younger generation in the world. This constant goal on specialised segmentation spurs international sale intensively through keeping the belief of cost down.

On the other hand, clear design style can carry out value-added to customers. IKEA conveyed Scandinavian element into their products to allow consumers to compose and pick up furniture as what they want and take it home immediately. The concept of ЎҐDIYЎ¦ may bring out fun from designing and assembling own space by themselves as well.

Furthermore, the benefit of the concentrated on one specialised segmentation is more likely to reduce the waste of developing diversified customers level. The advantage can not only obtain the wide audience in population pyramid stocks, but also increase the ability to achieve size dominance. The bigger market share which they gain, and the greater capability on price negotiation to suppliers and branding to customers (Meisler, 2004).

In the IKEAЎ¦s retailer outlets, it is easy to find out IKEA emphasises on its shopping experience, also make shoppers convenient. To contrast traditional furniture retailers, IKEA creates its own style and different atmosphere around outlets. In huge stores, IKEA offers "everything under one roof", most of it available for immediate take-away. Moreover it sells in room-like settings, so customers don't need a decorator to help them imagine how to put the pieces together. Adjacent to the furnished showrooms is a warehouse section with the products in boxes on pallets. In addition, every customer visiting the stores is equipped with tape measures, pens and notepaper; everything is packed in flat packages that can easily be transported by car for which huge parking spaces are provided; comprehensive instructions and the necessary tools are put into these packages to allow easy assembly. Under this atmosphere allows customers to make most of the decisions themselves. Showrooms not only provide inspiration and ideas for customers, but also encourage people to touch, feel and use the products on display to see how they would fit into their own home. Furthermore, IKEAЎ¦s outlets also approach to kids. Most furniture retailers seem to tolerate kids, but IKEA goes out of its way to attract them by providing playrooms, baby-sitters, and free diapers. IKEA plant its brand in the next generation.

Serving food is an IKEA tradition also is another typical IKEAЎ¦s style around the world. IKEA knows that when people shop for furniture theyЎ¦re making major decisions about spending money. Having the restaurant close by and within reach minimizes the stress and makes the shopping experience enjoyable. Moreover for IKEA which is furniture retailer, food not only serves as a diversion of entertainment, it increase brand awareness.

Most importantly, IKEA succeeded in educating their customers in order to create a behaviour that allows them to design their living and makes them welcome the home assembly of their furniture. Without this transformation of the customer into a co-producer, who does not consume value but creates it, all other practices mentioned would yield only modest benefits, if any. This particular combination of practices leads to an organisation of economic activity, which generates as substantial competitive advantage for IKEA (Solomon, 1991).

Although IKEA standardises most its products, IKEA has been done quite well on differentiation as it cross broad, also localisation. Due to different culture among different countries, IKEA has to face some additional challenge, such as social culture, various demands, and different taste, etc. For instance, the Americans like to sink into a large, soft sofa whereas Europeans prefer to sit on the edge. Therefore IKEAЎ¦s suppliers and designers have to customize some IKEAЎ¦s products to make them sell better in local markets. For example, there is a successful case in China, the 250,000 plastic placemats IKEA produced to commemorate the year of the rooster sold out in just three weeks. Another example, IKEAЎ¦s bedroom-line manager at IKEA of Sweden, visited people's houses in the U.S. and Europe to peek into their closets, learning that "Americans prefer to store most of their clothes folded, and Italians like to hang." The result was a wardrobe that features deeper drawers for U.S. customers. Furthermore IKEA has been aware of the difference of shopping culture, therefore IKEA has to change and modify their style to fit itself in these countries, such as IKEA introduced lots of water fountains throughout the store because Americans like drinking water while they shop. There had been a similar issue in Spain where special ventilated smoking areas had to be introduced in the room sets in Madrid and Barcelona, because the Spanish like smoking (Kling and Goteman, 2003) (Usumnier, 2000).

Weakness of IKEAЎ¦s strategy

Choosing a unique position, however, is not enough to guarantee a sustainable advantage. A valuable position will attract imitation by incumbents, who are likely to copy it in one of two ways (Frank Bradley, 2002)

First, a competitor can reposition itself to match the superior performer. Furniture design or models are easy to copy and competitions can reposition itself from to a more upscale, fashion-oriented, flexible retailer. Such as IKEAЎ¦s flat packing; simple design could be easily copied. A second and far more common type of imitation is straddling. The straddler seeks to match the benefits of a successful position while maintaining its existing position. It grafts new features, services, or technologies onto the activities it already performs.

In addition, the weakness of IKEA comes from the factor of hardly to measure industry standard. Hax and Wilde (1999) presented the concept of ЎҐlock-inЎ¦ which can be defined as an organisation stands an appropriate position where become an industry standard. Such as software giant, Microsoft, had written applications for Intel Pentium processors, and jointly create difficult entry barriers to followers.

Chapter Three

Perspectives for IKEA ÐŽV Sustainable development

IKEA is standing on the balance between global suppliers and customers based on the distinctive business strategy, which leverages customersЎ¦ need and suppliersЎ¦ supplement by keeping the belief of ЎҐaffordable solutions for better livingЎ¦ constantly. On the other hand, strategic differentiation and price lower than competitors sustain its business position in the world while business culture and leadership hidden in organization routines maintain the stable development towards the changing environment respectively.

However, the way to dominate the furniture industry in the world is still so far. Accordingly, how to increase market coverage and simultaneously discover a perspective of sustainable development are become a challenge for IKEA.

A sustainable strategic position come from position in ЎҐTrade-offsЎ¦. Ў§Choosing a unique position, however, is not enough to guarantee a sustainable advantage. Trade-offs is essential to strategy. They create the need for choice and purposefully limit what a company offersЎЁ (Porter 1996)

Standing on ЎҐtrade-offsЎ¦ position is essential and meaningful to strategy. Generally, ЎҐtrade-offsЎ¦ brings into the desire for choice and defend against repositioners and straddlers. They encourage the desire for option and purposeful limitation what a company provides. Since founding that it is hard to build up an industry regulation, establishing trade-offs are essential. There were likely three recommendations to IKEA:

Consistence in simple and stylish furniture

IKEA is known as their stylish and affordable furniture retailer. Based on the position to sustainable development, to persist in this spirit to create a wide reputation or a powerful branding in the world may be considered as a reasonable choice to IKEA. Meanwhile, tight margin comes from tight cost, yet, if IKEA squeeze supplier to achieve the purpose of minimizing cost and price, IKEA may not only face fierce price competition in the market, but resulting in undertaking the long-term relationship with supplier.

On the other hand, what if move into delicate furniture market? The basic IKEA business value is to provide affordable solutions for better living standard. This action may result in confusing consumers and losing credibility due to mutually exclusive image. In addition, the cost of entering a luxury furniture market could be higher than what they spend on cultivating deeply the segmentation of young and mid- income family.

As a result, to develop multi-funcational furniture is more likely feasible way to explore product range or categories. The benefits can not only shift the differentiation to repositioners and straddlers due to leading design innovation, but also carrying out the same business value to end-customers in clear style. Also, hyper-shipping mall may enhance the wide accessibility to customers because the experience marketing actually is also one of vital elements to spur sales by conveying clear sense to customers

Return to activities ÐŽV Focus on imperfect trade model

Porter also illustrated IKEA as an example to convey the basic concept on activities themselves. Ў§ The more IKEA has arranged its trade model to lower price by making its customers do their own delivery and assembly, the less able it is to satisfy customers who need satisfying service or high level of assistance. Ў§ This is, return to basic customersЎ¦ desires, which could be depicted as buying affordable price to decorate own house by themselves. Facilitating customers to realize what they true need, such as providing an idea of sample bedroom or kitchen where people even can experience or feel in personal. Even putting a rule for knowing the size of product or supporting color or pattern plate for selecting style is a practical way.

Concentrate on simple structure for internal control

One of risks comes from IKEA itself. As a biggest furniture retailer in the world, bureaucracy often company with successful growth, would play a factor to harm IKEA sustainable development in the future. Effort on HRM will help IKEA to become a concise organization whilst restructuring organization precisely will improve the capability of organization to confront the changing environment. Next, setting clear management priorities is also important to IKEA. Security is always in front of profit because the accumulated credibility will sustain business reputation when risk crisis occurred. Also, adequate and trained security staff is required for events to do first-aid help.

Conclusion - Standardization V.S. Localization

IKEA is a successful business in the world. Behind its successful story, the leadership and business culture guide the whole company to the biggest furniture retailer. No matter from establishing the company in Sweden with the simple idea of flat-pack furniture, or even building up an unique business position between suppliers and customers by keeping cost down to affordable price constantly, the invisible spirits always sustain the growth and development.

However, the conflict still exists among choosing standardization or localization. IKEA confronted lots of challenges in terms of diverse culture, demographic and market specific needs. Thus, does IKEA need to alter its strategy to grassroots market? (Konzelmann, Wilkinson, Craypo, and Aridi., 2005) presented that localization is likely an element of translating business strategy into diverse markets whereas Anders Dahlvig, the CEO of IKEA, had once said the concept of 'one-design-suits-all' will reveal in the world respectively. Nevertheless, instead of localization pressure would force IKEA to alter its strategy to fit into local market, but the keen beliefs inside its capability could not allow the big change taking place because IKEA has its own way to run.

To sum up, in the changing environment, perhaps, only pure and rare business value will continually sustain IKEA to stable and conscious development, just like their business culture.


Appendix 1

ÐŽ@ 2002 ÐŽ@ 2003 ÐŽ@ % point change ÐŽ@

Ў@ Јm % Јm % Ў@ Ў@


MFI 861.4 5.6 911 6.3 0.8 ÐŽ@

IKEA 880 5.7 794 5.5 0.8 ÐŽ@

Homestyle 539 3.5 680 4.7 0.8 ÐŽ@

DFS 462 3 499 3.5 0.8 ÐŽ@

Carpetright 387 2.5 451 3.1 0.8 ÐŽ@

Courts 235.5 1.5 286 2 0.8 ÐŽ@

Magnet 257 1.7 270 1.9 0.8 ÐŽ@

Moben/Sharps 219 1.4 240 1.7 0.8 ÐŽ@

Allied Carpets 203 1.3 210 1.5 0.8 ÐŽ@

Furniture village 109 0.7 120 0.8 0.8 ÐŽ@

Habitat 110 0.7 117 0.8 0.8 ÐŽ@

SCS 97.8 0.6 116.8 0.8 0.8 ÐŽ@

Furnitureland 103 0.7 115 0.8 0.8 ÐŽ@

Multiyork 60 0.4 70 0.5 0.8 ÐŽ@

Sub-total 4,523.70 29.2 4,879.80 33.8 0.8 ÐŽ@


Market 15,501 100 14,423 100 - ÐŽ@

Note: Full sales excluding VAT used for each retailer. This will effectively overstate share for companies with high proportion of soft furnishings, kitchenwares etc.

* estimated as full year sales not yet published

Source: Mintel


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